Teaching of Mathematics
The theoretical conception that supports the educational program for the care of children from 0 to 6 years in Cuba is based on recognizing the fundamental role of living conditions and education in the development of personality, fundamentally and specifically during the first 6 years of life.
Teaching the Elementary Notions of Mathematics
The contents of the Elementary Mathematical Notions area allow preparing the little one for the most complex knowledge about the qualitative and quantitative relationships between objects and their properties, initiating these relationships in the natural or social environment where it develops; in this way it helps the child to solve problems more easily and contributes to the development of logical thinking as an action independent of practical activity.
In the teaching of Elementary Mathematical Notions in preschool age, both the development of skills and the development of cognitive processes must be taken into account. These elements are of vital importance for the formation of these notions.
Working with sets
Working with sets is one of the most important contents included in the formation of the first mathematical notions and constitutes an indispensable premise for the intellectual development of preschool children.
From the development of joint work, it is necessary to clarify that set theory (Cantor, G, 1918), as an objective of assimilation and as a mathematical concept, is pursued in educational institutions and their programs by non-institutional means, which has as an objective to develop the most general mental capacities, to enable the development of rational operations of thought (analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstraction and generalization), allows simple generalizations to be made, in addition to guaranteeing the intuitive basis for obtaining concepts and relationships elementary mathematics that will be worked in later grades.
The work with groups begins from the third cycle of Preschool Education , taking as a basis all the experience accumulated by children about the knowledge of objects and the relationships that are established between them from a qualitative point of view.
It is important that at the preschool stage, the child is taught to observe what objects are like, what their characteristics are, since as he fixes his attention on objects and can establish cognitive relationships, he can arrive at a correct solution of the task set, facilitates the action and the mental processes are carried out quickly and efficiently.
Another important element is acting by itself, which allows the child to be independent in solving intellectual tasks, to be able to think, apply what he knows, establish relationships, and reach a result, which requires effort and with it The will to overcome difficulties, tenacity, demonstrated in carrying out the task begun and honesty are developed.
The intellectual development of the preschool-age child is privileged by the qualitative changes that occur in the personality, depending on the historical-social conditions. In this stage, an enormous enrichment and regulation of the child’s sensory experience, the assimilation of the specific forms of perception and thought, an impetuous development of the imagination, attention and conceptual memory, takes place so that these general characteristics , promote the beginning of the work with sets as the base content of the development of the Elementary Notions of Mathematics.