Tangerine

Tangerine. It is one of the highest-producing fruits in the world, originating in Southeast Asia, where citrus fruits originated about 20 million years ago. It is high in vitamin C , flavonoids, essential oils, and antioxidants that help prevent cancer. Of all citrus, it is the one with the most pleasant flavor.

Summary

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  • 1 Origin
  • 2 Taxonomy
    • 1 Scientific name
      • 1.1 Authors
    • 2 Combinations for this basonym
    • 3 Synonymy
    • 4 Common name
  • 3 Description
  • 4 Properties
  • 5 Nutritional value
  • 6 Producing countries
  • 7 varieties
  • 8 uses
  • 9 Cultivation
  • 10 References
  • 11 Sources

Origin

Tangerine comes from the tropical areas of Asia . Its name is believed to be due to the color of the costumes worn by the Mandarins, rulers of ancient China .

It can be said that it is a fruit native to China and Indochina.

Taxonomy

Scientific name

  • Citrus reticulata White [1]

Authors

  • White, Francisco Manuel
  • Published in: Flora of the Philippines 610. 1837. [two]

Combinations for this basonym

  • Citrus × nobilis subf. reticulata (White) Hiroë
  • Citrus × nobilis subf. reticulata (White) M. Hiroe [3]

Synonymy

  • Citrus × aurantium f. delicious (Ten.) Hiroë
  • Citrus × aurantium var. Makino tachibana
  • Citrus × nobilis Lour.
  • Citrus × nobilis subf. delicious (Ten.) Hiroë
  • Citrus × nobilis subf. erythrosa (Yu. Tanaka) Hiroë
  • Citrus × nobilis subf. reticulata (White) Hiroë
  • Citrus × nobilis subf. succosa (Tanaka) Hiroë
  • Citrus × nobilis subf. tachibana (Makino) Hiroë
  • Citrus × nobilis subf. unshiu (Marcov.) Hiroë
  • Citrus × nobilis var. delicious (Ten.) Guillaumin
  • Citrus × nobilis var. major Ker Gawl.
  • Citrus × nobilis var. ponki Hayata
  • Citrus × nobilis var. spontaneous Ito
  • Citrus × nobilis var. sunki hayata
  • Citrus × nobilis var. tachibana (Makino) Ito
  • Citrus × nobilis var. unshiu (Marcov.) Tanaka ex Swingle
  • Citrus × nobilis var. Vanguasy (Bojer) Guillaumin
  • Citrus aurantium subsp. suntra Engl.
  • Citrus chrysocarpa Lush.
  • Citrus daoxianensis SW He & GF Liu
  • Delicious citrus Ten.
  • Citrus depressa Hayata
  • Citrus erythrosa Yu. Tanaka
  • Citrus madurensis var. delicious (Ten.) Sagot
  • Citrus mangshanensis SW He & GF Liu
  • Citrus nobilis Lour.
  • Citrus nobilis var. delicious (Ten.) Swingle
  • Citrus ponki Yu. Tanaka
  • Citrus poonensis Yu. Tanaka
  • Citrus reticulata subsp. delicious (Ten.) Rivera, et al.
  • Citrus reticulata subsp. tachibana Rivera, et al.
  • Citrus reticulata subsp. unshiu (Marcov.) Rivera, et al.
  • Citrus reticulata var. austere Swingle
  • Citrus succosa Tanaka
  • Citrus suhuiensis Hayata
  • Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka
  • Citrus tachibana (Makino) Yu. Tanaka
  • Citrus tachibana subfo. depressa (Hayata) Hiroë
  • Citrus tachibana subfo. ponki (Yu. Tanaka) Hiroë
  • Citrus tachibana subfo. suhuiensis (Hayata) Hiroë
  • Citrus tangerina Yu. Tanaka
  • Citrus tankan Hayata
  • Citrus unshiu Marcov.
  • Citrus vanguard and Bojer
  • Citrus voangasay Bojer [4]
  • Citrus × aurantium f. delicious (Ten.) M.Hiroe
  • Citrus aurantium var. Makino tachibana
  • Citrus himekitsu Yu.Tanaka
  • Citrus nippokoreana Yu.Tanaka
  • Citrus × nobilis var. koozi Sisb.
  • Citrus × nobilis var. Hayata poonensis
  • Citrus otachihana Yu.Tanaka
  • Citrus reticulata var. chrysocarpa (Lush.) Tanaka
  • Citrus vanguardasay Bojer [5]

Common name

  • Tangerine, mandarin

Description

The tangerine tree can be much less than or equal in size to that of the sweet orange, depending on the variety. With great age, some may reach a height of 25 feet (7.5 m) with high branch spread. The tree is generally thorny, with thin branches, with both broad and thin leaves, lanceolate with tiny rounded teeth and petioles with narrow wings.

The flowers are born single or in small groups in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is flattened, the skin bright orange or red-orange when ripe, loose and easily separated from the segments. The seeds are small, pointed at one end, and green inside.

Properties

Its properties are multiple and above all beneficial for health due to its content. In vitamins and mineral elements .

Tangerine is poor in sugars, but its water content is higher than in the rest of citrus; it has a significant amount of vitamin C.

  • It is very good to eat your membranes because they contain pectin, a useful fiber that helps lower cholesterolin the blood . This polysaccharide present in the cell walls of vegetables , especially fruit, is used as a thickener in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
  • Its high content of vitamin Cmakes it intervene in the formation of collagen, as well as bones and teeth .
  • Supports the production of white red blood cellswith the support of citric acid, favors the absorption of iron and provides resistance to infections.
  • In infusion the peel of the tangerine serves as a slimming. and it is proven to be anti carcinogenic.
  • The pulp contains vitamin C, vitamin B , citric acid , reducing sugar and carotene.
  • It contains potassium, magnesium , calcium and bromine, although in less quantity. The potassium of the fruit, is a necessary mineral for the transfer and generation of the nervous impulse as well as for the normal muscular movement, it intervenes in the water balance of the cell both internally and externally.
  • It contains provitamin A or beta carotene, which is transformed into vitamin A, in the body, the same that is in greater quantity than other citrus fruits, at the same time this vitamin is essential for vision , skin , hair and hair preservation. mucous membranes, the bone system and especially for the immune system.
  • It is a great bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory. It helps in the treatment of ulcers, supports the intestine and digestion .
  • It has great anti infective and disinfecting power.
  • It prevents the development of cardiovascular, degenerative diseasesand cancer .
  • It has a great diuretic effect, eliminates kidney stones,
  • It is beneficial in case of hyperuricemia or gout.

Nutritional value

Among the nutritional properties of mandarin orange, it should be noted that it has the following nutrients:

Nutrients Value Nutrients Value
Calories 44.70 kcal. Grease 0.20 g.
Sodium 1.10 mg. Carbohydrates 9.20 g.
Fiber 1.80 g. Sugars 9.20 g.
Protein 0.63 g. Vitamin A 64.99 ug
Vitamin C 32.02 mg. Calcium 34.53 mg.
Iron 0.30 mg. Vitamin B3 0.41 mg.

Producing countries

The main producing countries of tangerines are with: Brazil , the United States , China , Mexico , Spain , India , Iran , Italy and Argentina . In Spain , the highest producer is the Valencian Community, followed by: Andalusia , Murcia , Catalonia and Baleraes .

Varieties

There are 4 basic varieties of mandarins: satsumas, clementines, clemenvillas and hybrids.

Satsumas: they have little palate but they are the first to arrive on the market.

  • Okitsu / Owari:few seeds, medium size, good flavor, good preservation. of the first of the season.
  • Clausellina:low warm, little palate, from the first season.

Clementines: good flavor, peel easily.

  • Marisol:good size, good bark color, a lot of juice, little palate, also one of the first of the season.
  • Oronules: alot of juice, one of the first of temporafa but with the best palate. Good shine and few seeds.
  • Clemenule:available mid-season, good size and intense color. Lots of juice, great flavor and easy to peel. Few seeds. A mutation of this is the Clemenpons, a little smaller.
  • Fine Clementine:available mid-season. Small size, intense orange chlor, a lot of juice, of the best flavor and easy to peel.

Clemenvillas:

  • Clemenvilla or Nova:medium-large size. Very reddish. Good quality, juicy, bittersweet, easy to peel. It dries when it matures.

Hybrids:

  • Ortanique:the latest. Medium large, slightly flattened. Lots of juice, sweet. Hard to peel. Intense color, La fortuna is another smaller hybrid variety.

Applications

Tangerines of all kinds are mainly consumed directly, or sections are used in fruit salads, jellies, puddings, or in cakes. Very small types are canned in syrup. The essential oil of the squeezed peel is used commercially to flavor caramels, jellies, ice creams, chewing gum and baked goods. Tangerine essential oil is a standard paste for flavoring carbonated beverages. The essential oil, with the terpenes and sesquiterpenes removed, is used in liqueurs . The Petitgrain tangerine oil, distilled from the leaves, green twigs and fruits, has the same food applications.

Both mandarin essential oil and petitgrain oil, and their various tinctures and essences, are valued in the manufacture of perfumes, particularly in the formulation of flower and cologne compounds. They are mainly produced in Italy, Sicily and Algiers.

Culture

Mandarin tree

The tangerine has reached its maximum development in the subtropical areas. Production in these areas is seasonal and the quality of the fruit for fresh consumption is excellent. It is more resistant to cold and more tolerant to drought than the orange tree, but the fruits are sensitive. The limiting factor is the minimum temperature, since it does not tolerate temperatures below 3ºC. Constant high temperatures maintain high levels of chlorophylls and its color is persistently green.

You need permeable, low-limestone soils and a humid environment both in the soil and in the atmosphere . It is recommended that the soil be deep to guarantee the anchoring of the tree , a wide exploration to guarantee good nutrition and adequate growth. The floors must have a balanced proportion of thick and thin elements to guarantee good aeration and facilitate the passage of water, in addition to providing a structure that maintains a good state of humidity.

It demands a lot of fertilizer of macro and micronutrients, since it frequently suffers from deficiencies, highlighting the lack of magnesium and zinc . A good irrigation must be provided, which does not saturate or wilt, trying to keep low humidity at 15 – 30 cm depth from the ground.

Pruning is more frequent than in the orange tree, since it is a species that can be very productive, so the breaking of branches is frequent and support structures are usually installed. An annual pruning is necessary in order to remove dead, weak or diseased branches and invigorate the rest of the vegetation .

The harvest takes place in the months from March to August , this being the best period of yield and quality for fresh consumption. Tangerines must be harvested with great care to avoid knocks, wounds or other damages that affect the quality and their conservation

 

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