Symptoms, causes, anorexia, diagnosis and treatment of dyspepsia

Dyspepsia, also known as indigestion, is a term that describes discomfort or pain in the upper abdomen. It is not a disease.

The term dyspepsia refers to a group of symptoms that often include swelling, discomfort, nausea, and burping.

In most cases, dyspepsia is associated with eating or drinking. It can also be due to infection or use of some medicines.

Dyspepsia is a group of symptoms rather than a specific condition.

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Most people with this dyspepsia feel stomach or chest pain and discomfort. Sensation usually occurs immediately after taking food or drink. This can make a person feel full or uncomfortable during a meal, even if they have not eaten large amounts of food.

Symptoms of Dyspepsia

Its symptoms can be such as

  1. Nausea
  2. Dakar
  3. Pain
  4. A sense of wholeness, or devotion
  5. Feeling bloated

In very rare cases, dyspepsia can be a symptom of colon cancer.

Mild dyspepsia rarely requires further testing, and should not be a cause for concern. If it continues for more than 2 weeks, medical advice is required.

If the pain is severe, and any of the following occurs. So seek emergency treatment like-

  1. Loss of appetite or weight loss
  2. vomiting
  3. Inability to swallow
  4. Black Stool
  5. Yellow color in eyes and skin

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  1. chest pain during exertion
  2. Shortness of breath
  3. Sweating
  4. Chest pain that spreads to the jaw, arms or neck

Heartburn and dyspepsia are often confused with each other, but they occur in two different conditions, despite being regularly at the same time. Heartburn is a symptom of acid reflux, which is described as a burning feeling behind breastfeeding, which usually occurs after eating.


Indigestion is usually caused by a person’s lifestyle and the foods they eat. It may also be related to an infection or other digestive conditions.

Symptoms are usually triggered by stomach acid exposed to the mucosa. Stomach acid breaks the mucosa, causing inflammation and inflammation. This triggers uncomfortable symptoms of indigestion.

Common causes of dyspepsia include, such as

  1. eat too much or too fast
  2. Eat fatty, greasy, or spicy foods
  3. Drinking too much caffeine or alcohol
  4. Consuming too much chocolate or soda
  5. Emotional trauma
  6. gallstones
  7. Gastritis, or inflammation of the stomach

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  1. Hiatus hernia
  2. Infections, especially with bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
  3. Nervousness
  4. Obesity
  5. Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas
  6. Peptic Ulcer
  7. Smoking
  8. Certain medicines, such as antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  9. Gastric Cancer

When a physician cannot find the cause of indigestion, a person may have functional dyspepsia. It is a type of dyspepsia without any structural or metabolic disease to explain the symptoms. This may be due to loss of stomach, which prevents it from accepting and digesting food in the normal way.


A high fiber diet is a good way to manage digestive health. It has the effect of cleansing the bowels and making digestion a smoother, cleaner process.

Fruits, nuts, legumes, and wholegrain foods are packed with fiber, and are an excellent option for protection against indigestion. Many yogurts and grains have also been strengthened with fiber.

Also read- Symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment of Celiac disease

Eating a balanced meal except spicy or greasy food is important. Be sure to consume liquids with each meal, as it helps to move food through the digestive system.

Consuming four or five small meals in a day can also help the digestive system, unlike the three big ones.


Dyspepsia is mild and mild for most people with symptoms. In such cases, no treatment is required.

Those who experience regular indigestion or severe abdominal pain should see a primary care physician.

The doctor will ask the person experiencing dyspepsia about their symptoms. They will also find out about their medical and family history and examine the chest and abdomen. This may involve putting pressure on different areas of the abdomen, to find out if someone is sensitive, tender or painful under pressure.

If the physician suspects the underlying cause, they can use the following diagnostic tests to identify underlying health problems, such as

Blood test- If a person with indigestion also has symptoms of anemia, the doctor may order a blood test.

Endoscopy – Those who have not responded to previous treatment for dyspepsia may be referred for more detailed examination of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Finally a long thin tube with a camera is inserted into the mouth and stomach. It produces clear images of mucus. Physicians may also perform a biopsy during this procedure to test for cancer.

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Tests to diagnose H pylori infection – these may include a urea breath test, a stool antigen test, and a blood test. An endoscopy will identify H pylori as well as any peptic ulcers present. Peptic ulcers are often caused by H pylori.

Liver function test- If the doctor suspects a problem with the bile ducts in the liver, they may request a blood test to check how the liver is functioning.

X- rays – X-ray images are taken from the esophagus, stomach and small intestine.

Abdominal Ultrasound – High frequency sound images show abdominal discharge, structure and blood flow. A gel is applied to the abdomen, and a hand-held device is pressed against the skin. The device sets off sound waves, and the doctor can see a detailed picture of the inside of the abdomen on the monitor.

Abdominal CT scan – This may include intravenous dye injection. The dye shows up on the monitor. A CT scan takes a series of X-ray images to create a 3D image inside the abdomen.

Further tests are often used in severe cases.


Treatment for indigestion depends on the cause and severity of symptoms.

If the symptoms are mild and less, then lifestyle changes will probably reduce them. It usually consumes less fatty and spicy foods and less caffeine, alcohol and chocolate. Sleeping at least 7 hours every night can also help to reduce mild dyspepsia.

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Exercising regularly and quitting smoking are also important lifestyle changes in the treatment of indigestion.

The medicines

In severe or persistent cases of dyspepsia, a physician may prescribe medication.

Antacids- They counteract the effects of stomach acid. Examples include Alka-Seltzer, Maalox, Rolides, Ryopan, and Mylanta. These are over-the-counter (OTC) medicines that do not require a prescription. Physicians will usually recommend antacid medication as one of the first treatments for dyspepsia.

H-2-receptor antagonists – they lower stomach acid levels, and last longer than antacids. However, antacids work more quickly. Examples include Zantac, Tagmate, Pepsiid, and Exid. Some of these are OTC, while others are available only on prescription.

Some people may experience nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, and headache after taking them. Other side effects may include bruising or bleeding.

Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) – Examples include Acifex, Nexium, Prevacid, Prilosec, Protonix and Zagrid. PPIs are highly effective for people who also have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). They reduce stomach acid, and are stronger than H-2-receptor antagonists.

Talk to the doctor about possible side effects.

Prokinetics – This medicine is useful for an empty stomach slowly. An example of prokinetic medicine is reglan. Side effects can include tiredness, depression, sleepiness, anxiety, and muscle spasms.

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Antibiotics – If H pylori is causing peptic ulcer, resulting in indigestion, the antibiotic will be prescribed. Side effects may include upset stomach, diarrhea, and fungal infections.

Antidepressants- If the physician does not find a cause for dyspepsia after a thorough evaluation, and the person with dyspepsia has not responded to treatment, the physician may prescribe low-dose antidepressants.

Antidepressants sometimes reduce discomfort by reducing pain sensations. Side effects may include nausea, headaches, agitation, constipation, and night sweats.

Psychological therapy- For people with functional dyspepsia, psychological therapy can help manage the cognitive aspects of indigestion. Cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback, hypnotherapy, and relaxation therapy may be recommended.

The doctor may also recommend a change in a person’s current medication schedule if they suspect it may be indigestion. A course of aspirin or ibuprofen can sometimes be stopped, and alternative medicines are recommended.

Changing medicines is important only under the supervision of a physician.


Dyspepsia is mild and less in most cases. However, severe insults can sometimes cause the following complications.

Esophageal hardening – acid reflux can cause indigestion. This is a condition in which stomach acids return to the esophagus, and irritate the sensitive lining of the stomach, known as mucus. Burning can scare the esophagus, which then becomes narrow and narrow.

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People with esophageal strictures may find swallowing difficult. Food can get stuck in the throat due to chest pain. Esophageal dilatation sometimes requires widening of the esophagus.

Pyloric Stenosis – This happens when stomach acid causes long-term irritation of the lining of the digestive system. Pylorus is the passage between the stomach and small intestine. In pyloric stenosis, it worsens, and becomes compressed. As a result, the food is not digested properly.

Surgery may be needed to widen the pylorus.


  1. Dyspepsia is similar to indigestion, and is not a disease. This is the name for the group of symptoms that cause stomach discomfort.
  2. Over-consumption, consumption of greasy or spicy foods, and intermittent hernia can all lead to indigestion.
  3. An endoscopy may be used to identify the root cause.
  4. Dietary options and medication are used to manage the symptoms of dyspepsia.


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