The stakeout consists of plotting or marking the axes on the ground or on the foundation plan and the other elements of the building that are described in the project of the work already planned. .
The Staking . It is the set of operations necessary to transfer the measurements of the plan to the land in natural size, according to the indications of the plans, marking the fundamental points that define the location in plant and the levels necessary for the execution of the work. This line is made with reference to the demarcation made by the local authorities and to the location process carried out previously and defined in the plans that contain the project.
Staking out is the inverse process of surveying and constitutes the first operation for the construction execution.. This line is made with reference to the demarcation made by the local authorities and to the location process carried out previously and defined in the plans that contain the project. Staking out is the inverse process of surveying and constitutes the first operation for the construction execution.
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- 1 Previous Land Information
- 2 Responsibilities
- 3 Geotechnical Study
- 1 Stages to be carried out for the Geotechnical Study
- 4 Data Collection
- 5 Staking Act
- 6 Adjacent Constructions
- 1 Services
- 2 Constructions
- 3 Other
- 7 Information on Supply Networks and Medians
- 8 Demolitions and Demolitions
- 1 Demolish
- 2 Knock Down
- 9 Sources
Previous Land Information
When the work is awarded, the designated team is formed and already on the ground, the layout of the building to be constructed must be carried out, then the Stakeout Act is signed. But we must previously consider certain aspects that can influence the achievement of the work, assess them and act accordingly. They are:
- Study Geotechnical.
- Medians, State of Affordable Construction.
- Demolitions and demolitions.
The stakeout is the direct responsibility of the Project Manager, who must contemplate from the general layout of the land to the layout of all the roofs, without neglecting any element of the building, from foundations, structures, masonry , etc. For each of these items, the staking should be done carefully; in some cases a small rectifiable error could be admitted, as in the emptying of shoes for example, but in others it must act with precision without leaving room for error, such as holes for carpentry or stairs. The good execution of the next phase depends on a good initial staking.
To start a work, the Building Planning Law (LOE) in force throughout the Spanish territory , requires contracting insurance that covers material damage caused by defects and / or construction defects. Similarly, it requires the hiring of a quality control company Technical Control Agency (OCT), which in turn indicates that every project must incorporate a Geotechnical Study in a mandatory and mandatory manner. This evaluative study of the land will serve the designer to make the appropriate choice of the Foundations of the building.
Stages to be carried out for the Geotechnical Study
The Geotechnical Study is carried out in a sequence of stages, namely:
- Obtaining and compiling the previous documentation that exists, especially geotechnical and geological mapping; Study and evaluation.
- Land Recognition.
- On-site and laboratory tests to obtain data on the geotechnical properties of the land under study.
- Analysis and interpretation of data.
- Conclusions and recommendations according to the objectives.
During the development of these stages of study, the appropriate conditions are applied depending on the tests and the recognition techniques and the regulations that correspond to it. Planning is carried out based on the occupation surface of the building, its structural characteristics, the nature and behavior of the land. Initially the recognition of the land must carry out at least two mechanical surveys, if there is no previous information on the characteristics of the land. This study should be included as an important part in the elaboration of the project, serving to know about the existence, for example, of clayey layers or groundwater levels that require adequate measures at the correct times.
The geotechnical study is based on the development in phases, namely:
- Compilation and study of existing prior documentation, especially geotechnics and geological mapping.
- Recognition of the land or plot where the building will be built.
- Laboratory tests to obtain and define the geotechnical properties of the land.
- Interpretation and analysis of data collected and obtained by trials.
- Conclusions and recommendations according to the objectives of the study.
During the development of these phases of study, the appropriate conditions of execution must be applied, depending on the different recognition and testing techniques, and the regulations in force and applicable to them. The planning is organized according to the surface occupied by the building, its characteristics, the nature and variability of the land, if there are water tables, at what depth, etc. Except in areas of known prior characteristics, the survey must have at least two mechanical surveys. We must bear in mind that a poor or non-existent geotechnical study can cause important pathologiesstructural. The geotechnical study constitutes an important part for the elaboration of the project, since the same conditions the decisions to be taken as soon as its design, from the foundations.
The Stakeout Act is a contractual document that is made after checking the general layout of the work, there showing the incidents of the site, dimensions, dimensions, and the date that indicates the official start of the start of the works. After the necessary verification, it is stated in the record that there is no incident that may interfere with the start and development of the work, or if the incidents exist, such as differences in the dimensions to which they appear in the plans, or that the geometry of the plot differs with the planes, etc. Next, the start of the work is marked; It is usually stated that the beginning of the work will begin to count after X days after the signing of the Stakeout Act. Once the stakeout is finished, it is communicated to the interested parties, a visit is made to them, and if there is nothing objectionable, the Stakeout Act is signed, which from then on becomes a contractual document of the work. It is important to dump in the Minutes any incident that we consider relevant and that does not harm the normal development of the work; since once the Act is signed, and only for an imponderable one, it is very difficult to claim and go backwards.
Prior to the start of any work, at the time of implementation, we must observe the environment of our site. It will be checked if it is exempt or has medians, how many and in what conditions they are; if there are telephone or electricity airlines, if the surrounding buildings are high or lower than what we are going to build. From all the previous analysis of the environment we will have an idea of how the new construction fits in that site. At first impression, we must foresee possible difficulties in the execution and generate alternative methods and solutions to correct problems or avoid them before they occur. Below we summarize the likely interferences with which we will meet:
- Supply water
- Mediary Buildings
- Sidewalks and Curbs
- Urban Furniture
- Landscaped Sectors
Information on Supply Networks and Medians
It is recommended to include in the first actions prior to the work, to inform the Service Companies of the supply networks that could affect the work; This is done through a written request after which the companies send a plan with the distribution of networks, where you can see if this could affect the development of the work.This data should have them already before the Staking Act, since if there is Some service that affects our site, the data is turned into the minutes. Another point to discuss is to check the status of the medians with the bordering buildings, to have the antiquity data of the same, if there are basements that need containment work, for example. In the event that during the development of works on site, there are deteriorations of street furniture or modifications to gardens,Corresponding City Hall For these assumptions, we must plan and assess possible replacements and repairs of accesses prior to the start of construction.
Demolitions and Demolitions
It is possible that on the site where the work is done, there are old buildings that occupy all or part of the property, so it is necessary to tear down or demolish them.
Demolish is the action that is carried out in a building to totally or partially eliminate it, and the subsequent transfer of the debris produced.
Knock down is the action included in the same demolition, aimed at the total destruction of the construction from which unclassified waste is generated. In certain rehabilitation works, one part of the building must be demolished and rebuilt again while maintaining others.
In any case, a procedure should be followed as follows:
- Obtaining general data of the building through recognition; Obtaining plans, photos, or ocular recognition in situ.
- Building composition, building systems, materials used; Current state of structural and constructive elements.
- Demolition or demolition method or system, including previous actions related to attachments, security, etc.
With the data obtained, an execution project is prepared. As work executors, we must include it in the project documentation or as part of the execution of new work, or as an independent project, apart from the rest.