Enchapes . they are coatings or coatings that are applied to different construction elements, such as walls , stairs , columns , beams etc. to give durability and resistance. They can be constructed of different materials such as natural and artificial stones, wood, vitreous materials, plastics, etc. According to these materials, they can be classified as follows.
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- 1 Classification
- 1 Natural stone veneers
- 2 Veneers of artificial stones
- 3 Tile veneers
- 4 Ceramic veneers
- 5 Wood veneers
- 6 Vitreous veneers
- 7 Plates of plastic materials
- 2 sources
- a) Of natural stones:
- b) Of artificial stones.
- c) Ceramics:
- Mud slab.
- Ceramic stoneware.
- Hydraulic tiles.
- Cast cement.
- d) Wooden
- e) Of vitreous materials
- f) Of plastic materials
- h) Of metallic materials
Natural stone veneers
The most used stones are granites, marbles and limestones ..
Marble and granite veneers are applied in an iron and adhere to the surface of the wall through the use of cement mortar . The plates come from the workshops to the work, already cut and polished.
These veneers are expensive, of great durability, beautiful appearance and magnificent finish. They are used in monumental works and in all those in which a coating of exceptional duration and resistance is necessary. There are stones commercially known as marbles, which are sometimes destroyed by having in their composition alterable elements; for example, certain serpentine stones and others that, despite having beautiful veins, do not resist the weather, when certain mineral oxides are altered, which ultimately destroy the plates or sheets.
One of the most used natural stone veneers is that of Jaimanite stones . We have an example of them in buildings of the [José Martí Revolution Square [| José Marti Revolution Square]], in Havana City .
These stones are worked and cut in the work. If we compare them with marble or granite , we will see that they are cheaper, but their surface is porous and after several years it is necessary to clean them. Limestone veneers such as Chaplains (more resistant and less porous than Jaimanitas ) have been used, which can be seen in the National Capitol , headquarters of the Academy of Sciences of Cuba , and limestone , slate, etc. , used in homes and other buildings. The variety of the awakening, whether imitating ashlars, hired or concerted masonry and any design, will depend on the character of the work and the type of stone to be used.
Veneers of artificial stones
They can be made of precast mortar or concrete pieces of ceramic materials such as ceramics (stoneware), mud slabs, tiles and terracotta; hydraulic tile; of terrazzo plates; of vitreous materials, either. in the form of sheets or in the form of pills, etc.
Precast mortar or concrete pieces are applied through the use of mortars or melts; they exist in various] shapes and colors. An example is in one of the side facades of the Riviera Hotel in the City of Havana ; However, its use is not very common.
Tile veneers are an important part of the finishing or completion of the works. They are used in places that will be in continuous contact with moisture or grease, such as bathrooms and kitchens and in places that require great ease of sanitation, such as operating rooms in hospitals, laboratories, and so on.
The surfaces to be covered with tiles must be previously prepared. If they are walls, they will carry a resona that matches the irregularities.
Care must be taken that the squares, leads and surface levels are good, so that when we settle the tiles we do not have irregularities and defects. One of the main secrets of the placement of this material consists precisely in the prior, adequate preparation of the surfaces on which they are to be seated.
In addition, both tiles and surfaces must be well wet. As for its form of placement, it can be a running joint, matajuntas or bevel. The first is the most usual way for all purposes, both for its ease of placement and for its shine.
The key point in the display of a tiled room is the correct distribution before starting work. The layout of the layout course must be studied before beginning, to find the greatest possible number of coincidences of joints with devices and of the wall joints with those of floor, when the floor goes of the same material.
When we are tiling a bathroom with a single sink, we start in the distribution of the axis of the bathroom to find a match with the mirror cabinet. If there are several toilets, we will study the best set distribution. In these cases you should always ask your opinion to the technician responsible for the work
We must pay special attention to the uniformity of the size and quality of the tiles on the cloths, for which, if we do not have the guarantee that all the pieces are uniform, we must select the sizes and qualities that come and plan the way its use for the best show off.
They have great use, especially outdoors, where they take advantage of their durability and permanence. With them morals are formed, as in the Habana Libre hotel . Beams and columns are also coated, which give it a good finish, although it is a bit expensive, but its durability far outweighs its cost. There are also special bricks and clay slabs, for veneers, which are applied to the walls by mortars.
Terracotta is a ceramic material that is used in wall veneers for its great durability, although it is expensive. Its placement is based on metal staples.
The veneers of hydraulic tiles and terrazzo plates have a longer duration indoors, since the weather ends up putting them porous and bleaching them. Tile veneers have more possibilities in terms of design, although they are more: expensive when special molds have to be made.
They are used indoors. They comprise all types of veneer, whether in the form of boards, slats or sheets generally of plywood that is a type of material formed by wood sheets, in several layers (with their fibers perpendicular to each other) joined by special glues. All wood veneers need a chipboard, where the pieces of wood are applied. The most used woods are: majagua, cedar and mahogany.
The wood veneer has a great use in offices, commercial buildings, clubs, etc., because of its texture and pleasant appearance it is a good element of composition.
They can be used in the form of pills or in the form of plates. The tablets have an effect similar to ceramic stoneware tablets, but with more brightness. In a laminar form of plates, a polished and shiny surface is achieved, with vitrolite being the most used material, usually in commercial buildings. They have great durability if their application has been correct, since due to deficiencies of glue or placement, they sometimes peel off or crack. In the case of pills and sheets, there is a wide variety of colors.
Plastic materials veneers
Certain tapestries (made of plastic materials, such as synthetic resins) and fabrics are used especially indoors, for their ease of cleaning, texture and variety of colors. These materials have been used in wall veneers in hospitals. theaters, etc. They are placed by glue and on a flat base.