Science and technology (science and technology) has become part of human life. Science and technology is a means for people to prosper. With science and technology, humans can help meet their needs. Examples such as when you need food, just using the help of a cellphone you can order food and immediately delivered to your home.
As you feel, science and technology provide convenience and comfort for human life. The development of science and technology certainly has positive and negative impacts in economic activities.
The Role of Science and Technology in Economic Activities
Currently, economic activities, whether production, distribution or consumption, have been helped by the development of science and technology. Some examples of the development of science and technology in the economic field such as the number of supermarkets, the existence of online buying and selling, the presence of exports and imports as well as the number of ATM machines (Automatic Teller Machines) . Well, behind its development, there are some positive and negative impacts that we get.
The following are some of the positive impacts of the development of science and technology in economic activities, namely:
- The activities of producing goods and services have become faster and easier because human labor has been replaced by mechanical power.
- The number of new jobs opened, such as online motorcycle taxi drivers.
- The distribution of goods has become easier and faster.
- Companies can get increased profits.
- Community needs are met because of the many conveniences that can be obtained from the use of the science and technology.
Meanwhile, the following are some of the negative impacts of the development of science and technology in economic activities, namely:
- The number of unemployed is increasing, due to a change from human labor to machine labor. So that human labor is no longer needed.
- Pollution is getting better through land, sea and air waste due to more production.
- In addition to pollution, natural resources will also be increasingly depleted due to the urge to continue producing with the facilities provided.
If seen from the negative impacts caused, it is actually very unfortunate. But, the use of science and technology is not only in economic activities but also in other community activities such as education, social and culture. We also know that the development of science and technology will never stop here because it will continue to grow.
The following are some of the roles of the development of science and technology in economic activities, namely:
The first role is the production stage. Production is an activity that can produce or create goods. Another understanding, production is an activity that can produce goods or services or an activity that can add value to goods or services.
Based on the definition of production it can be concluded that the use value of an item or service will increase if the item is processed again and produces other goods. People or institutions that carry out these production activities are referred to as producers.
Science and technology can support production activities, especially the need for production machines, raw materials for production, and supporting materials for production. The following are examples of machine images (IPTEK) for producing shoes:
By using existing technology, the shoe production process becomes faster and easier. So that production activities can be multiplied according to market needs, because they are automatically measured with the same size.
In the production activities there are several factors contained therein. Here are some factors of production, namely:
- Natural Resources (SDA)
Natural resources are materials that are found in nature and can be used to meet the needs and survival of humans. As a factor of production, natural resources are used as raw materials. Examples such as land or land, forests, trees, and water.
The next factor of production is labor. A producer who owns land or land certainly cannot process it himself. Therefore the need for labor. Workers have a duty to process the land or land into a product or goods produced that can later be used by many people.
The next factor is capital. Real capital is not only in the form of money. But, capital can also be in the form of a machine or raw material used in the production process. Building or place of production can also be regarded as capital.
The last factor of production is entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship here means the ability to run a company in order to carry out the production process efficiently and can be profitable by bringing together the factors of production. So, among the three factors of production above there must be a set. Well, this entrepreneurial factor is tasked with regulating the production process to run well and in accordance with the plan.
Goods that have passed the production process that are processed by a producer cannot simply reach the consumers. An activity is needed whose role is to distribute the goods from the producer to the consumer. The activity is called distribution activities.
Distribution activity is an activity to distribute goods or services from the hands of producers to consumers. In addition, distribution activities are also an effort to add value to goods or services. Who does the distribution? Distribution activities can be carried out by individuals or distribution institutions (intermediaries). Individuals or institutions that carry out distribution are referred to as distributors.
With online orders and sales, it can simplify transactions without having to meet in person and can speed up the distribution of goods from producers to consumers.
The objectives of the distribution activities are as follows:
- To distribute goods or services from producers to consumers.
- So that production results can be more useful for the community.
- So that people’s needs for goods or services can be met properly.
- So that production continuity can be guaranteed.
Distributors themselves are divided into three types, namely:
- Distributors or traders who buy goods in large quantities and buy them directly from the factory or manufacturer. Then, sell it directly to small traders or retailers. Examples such as wholesalers, exporters, and importers.
- Traders or distributors who buy from large traders, then sell it directly to consumers at retail. Examples such as street vendors, hawkers, minimarkets, supermarkets, and so forth.
- Distributors who only bring together sellers and buyers. He will not be responsible for the goods that are delivered or sold. There are three types of intermediaries, namely agents, commissioners, and brokers / brokers / brokers.
The next activity is consumption. Consumption activity is an activity to use, use or spend the usefulness of an item either gradually or directly as well as run out. Consumption activities have a purpose to meet the needs of human life.
The role of science and technology in consumption activities is that science and technology can provide convenience to consumers in meeting their needs. Consumers can easily and quickly get the items they need. Consumers can be individuals, companies, or countries. Someone who does consumption is called a consumer.
The following is an example of consumption activities:
The goods used will reduce the value. Goods or products that are used more often and the longer they are damaged. Like the cellphone above. Will the cellphone be damaged? Of course, within a certain period will be damaged and must be replaced with new ones. So it can be interpreted that they are consuming the value of an item that is mobile.
This time the article discusses what are the roles of science and technology in economic activities. Hopefully this article can be useful. Thank you