In contrast to the qualitative research methodology that we discussed in the previous article, quantitative research methods use numerical data to analyze the facts found. This time, we will more fully discuss quantitative research methods.
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Definition of Quantitative Research
Generally quantitative research deals with numbers. Some experts define quantitative research differently, including:
- Nana Sudjana and Ibrahim (2001)
“Quantitative research is research based on assumptions, then determining variables, and then analyzed using valid research methods, especially in quantitative research.”
- Kusiram (2008)
“Quantitative research is a research method that uses numerical data processing as a tool to analyze and conduct research studies, especially about what has been investigated before.”
- Sugiyono (2011)
“Quantitative research methods are research methods based on the philosophy of positivism, used in researching samples and research populations , sampling techniques are generally carried out randomly, while the data collection is done by utilizing the research instruments used, data analysis used is quantitative and can be measured with the aim of testing hypotheses that have been predetermined. “
From the definitions put forward by the experts above, it can be concluded that quantitative research or quantitative research methods is a method of research aimed at verifying theory / truth, constructing facts, showing statistical descriptions, analyzing results with systematic procedures with numerical data or numbers or graphics.
Quantitative research aims to determine the relationship between variables in a population. There is a difference in purpose between descriptive and experimental quantitative research. Descriptive quantitative research aims to find relationships between variables that only occur once. Whereas experimental quantitative aims to measure the relationship between variables before and after and see the cause and effect of the phenomenon under study.
Quantitative research has characteristics that are generally possessed, including:
- Using deductive thinking patterns where patterns that try to understand a phenomenon by using general concepts to explain phenomena that are specific.
- The logic of thought used is the logic of positivism and avoiding things that are subjective.
- The purpose of this quantitative research is to arrange nomothetic science, which is the science that seeks to make laws from generalizations.
- Subjects studied, data collected, data sources, and data collection tools used in accordance with what was previously designed.
- Data collection is done by measuring using objective and standard tools.
- Researchers position themselves separately from the object of research, so that means the researcher is not emotionally involved with the research subject. This is different from qualitative research in which the research analysis depends on the researcher.
- In data analysis, researchers are required to understand statistical techniques and be able to analyze data after the required data has been collected.
- The quantitative research process follows a planned procedure involving numbers and data quantification.
- The results of the study are generalizations and predictions, free from the context of time and situation means that the facts and results of the study are not fixed on time and situation.
Types of Quantitative Research
There are at least 7 types of quantitative research proposed by experts, including:
- Descriptive Research
In quantitative research, there are also types of descriptive research which prioritizes in-depth analysis of the data and facts found. This type of research is intended to raise the facts, circumstances, variables, and phenomena that occur now and present what they are.
This description method can be used to research the status, an object, a certain condition, a system of thought, or events in the future. An example of this research is for example, wanting to see the effect of learning on student achievement within 4 years. The data can be in the form of achievement index (IP), absenteeism, material, lecturer abilities and so forth.
- Comparative Research
This type of comparative research is a type of research to find answers fundamentally about causation by analyzing the factors that cause or emerge of a particular phenomenon. Much research can be done with the comparative method.
An example is a study to find out the causal relationship between achievement and students’ diligence in the library, learning calm, study time, etc. This research can look at phenomena and test the causal relationship of these data.
- Correlational Research
Correlational research is research to see the relationship between variables or several variables with other variables. This study uses independent variables to predict and dependent variables for predictable variables.
Correlational research is one part of expostfacto research because researchers generally use the state of existing variables and directly look for the existence of relationships and the level of relationship variables that are reflected in the correlation coefficient. This type of research aims to test the hypothesis that has been established by measuring a number of variables and calculating the correlation coefficient (r) between these variables, so that it can be determined which variables are correlated.
An example is to examine variables related to teacher professional competence. All related variables used such as educational background, material, time used and learning methods will be calculated the correlation coefficient to find out which variable is the strongest correlation with teacher professional competence.
- Survey Research
Survey research is research that takes samples from one population and uses questionnaires as a data collection tool. So, what becomes a tool to dig up data can be done interviews, observations, document data or through questionnaires.
In general, this type of research using a questionnaire is used as a primary data collection tool. This survey research also adopts a quantitative approach in which the more samples, the more describing the population under study. Survey research will be better if the analysis is carried out in stages.
- Ex Post Facto Research
Ex post facto research is a study in which the independent variables have taken place during the research. The study was conducted to analyze what are the factors causing something to happen.
- Experimental Research
Experimental research is research that seeks to determine the effect of certain variables on other variables under tightly controlled conditions. This means that conditions and situations are monitored and guarded for the sake of research with plans that have been made previously. There are 4 types of experimental research, namely, pre experimental, true experimental, factorial, and quasi experimental.
- Action Research
The final type of research is action research, which is a form of self-reflection research through real action in actual situations. The purpose of this study is to improve the process and understanding of the practices of an activity whose results can be implicated in overcoming a problem.
This research was carried out by acting scientifically with the concept of scientific research. This research also involves participant groups so that collaboration can be done. Finally, the results of the study are used as self-reflection as problem solving.
Quantitative Research Procedure
Quantitative research can be carried out with procedures or stages including the following:
- Identify the problem
- Gather theory or study literature.
- Develop a conceptual framework
- Identifying and defining variables, hypotheses, and research questions.
- Develop research disaign.
- Take and determine sampling techniques.
- Data collection and quantification.
- Perform data analysis.
- Interpretation and communication of research results.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantitative Research Methods
The advantage of using quantitative research is that the researcher first has the capital to obtain the objectivity of the research results. Second, can apply the average number so that research can be used according to conditions or circumstances. Secondly, it can avoid bias because researchers keep their distance from participants by using computer softwares properly.
Whereas those of you who take quantitative research methods have weaknesses in the completeness of the study. Second, bias will occur if the researcher only reflects the interests of the researcher without being on the actual problems faced by the participants. In addition, the results are considered less detailed and in-depth in analyzing the data.
Quantitative research is the process of finding answers to hypotheses that use data in the form of numbers as a means of finding information about what we want to know. That is our review of quantitative research. May be useful