In general, mass media can be classified into three types, namely: print media, electronic media and online media. Each type of mass media has advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages of mass media
a) Print media
1) Print media is more in-depth and detailed when reporting an event. Readers are invited to think and analyze the news presented through the style of writing by the media itself.
2) Print media is also possible to be saved / clipped. This is useful if at any time you need news about past events.
3) Print media has its own segment, so people just have to choose what media to read according to their needs (level of education, life style, etc.).
4) Print media (newspapers) are offered at low prices, so people can buy them without spending a lot of money.
5) Flexible (more flexibility in determining the publication schedule for advertisements and newspapers that publish (whether local, regional or national) related to the target audience of the advertisement).
6) Print media is able to reach areas according to their area coverage. For example, Suara Merdeka, for a more specific area, presents Semarang Metro. Solo Metro, Suara Muria, and so on.
b) Electronic media
1) Electronic media reach a wide audience. Everyone can access electronic media, because in almost every place, from public spaces, offices and residents’ homes, electronic media is available.
2) Electronic media also provides news that is easier to understand because it delivers news directly to the point and is accompanied by moving pictures. Because it can provide a combination of sound with moving images. In addition, it does not require reading skills and abilities as in print media. With pictures, everyone quite understood the meaning.
3) Electronic media is more attractive because it is free and people can choose / change channels in a short time. For example, at 14.00 WIB all television and radio stations play their respective programs so that viewers / listeners are free to choose what channels and what programs they will enjoy.
4) Electronic media connoisseurs of all ages with a wide selection of program programs. Because electronic media provides various events for all ages, genders and professions.
5) The electronic media is faster in updating news. For example, in breaking news, an incident that has just happened is immediately reported to the public so that the public can update the information right away.
6) Electronic media can deliver news directly from the scene and can display the process of an event occurring. Like a live broadcast during a terrorist raid.
c) Online media
1) Online media is cheap and easy to get. When someone needs information, they can access it via google, yahoo or other free sites. In seconds the information will be obtained.
2) People can access online media anywhere and anytime. A person can access okezone.com whenever he needs news, even though at 22.00 WIB.
3) Online media news updates are faster than other media. This is because of the ease of internet access. People don’t just use PCs to upload news, but via notebooks, smartphones and tablets.
4) Data or news is stored and can be reopened or archived at any time. This depends on technological advances. Epaper provides menu options to open old newspaper archives. So if you need information, you just have to open the internet / newspaper website and look for the information you need, you don’t need to open clipping files that take a lot of energy and time.
5) Online media is a whole package because in addition to text, it is also in the form of animation, especially in video, image and audio advertisements. This makes it easier for the audience to get news and is more interesting to follow, such as doing 3 things at the same time, thus saving more time.
6) Online media users can interact with each other by sharing comments. Online media also provides opportunities for two-way communication because audiences can comment on related news.
7) Online media will continue to grow and is not only limited to computer users because currently online media can be accessed via mobile / smartphone and tablet media. This also relates to the development of communication technology where all information technology gadget manufacturers produce tablets and smartphones.
Lack of mass media
a) Print media
1) Some people think that reading print media to get news is boring. They prefer electronic media because the news that is displayed is accompanied by images and colors and is shorter / to the point of the news.
2) Clipping / storing print media in large / large quantities will be a hassle because it requires a separate space and is impractical. If a company is clipping Newspaper articles for several years, they need a special cabinet to store the pile of clippings.
3) Some people are lazy if they have to buy print media to get news, they prefer free electronic media and online media.
4) In watching news in general (for example, breaking news), a person is not faced with the choice of segments of social, economic and educational class to obtain news. Because in non-print media, the news is read briefly directly to the core of the news.
5) Print media is slow in updating news. Because the print media must go through various stages before it is printed and distributed to the public.
6) Print media usually contains news that has been published by other mass media, because updates are not as fast as electronic and online media.
b) Electronic media
1) The cost of producing electronic media is more expensive than print media. Because electronic media requires high costs in maintaining news search tools and other components.
2) Electronic news cannot be repeated if there are parts that the audience / listeners are not clear about. This is because the coverage is fleeting and fast.
3) Irregular channel changes by viewers / listeners make the capture / absorption of the meaning of news incomplete.
4) Monitoring of electronic media events tends to be less controllable. Children are more likely to watch adult shows.
5) The electronic media is indeed faster in updating news, although sometimes it is incomplete in its delivery to the public. Because there is a duration in each program.
6) For viewers / listeners who are selective in listening to news, they feel they do not have enough insight and in-depth analysis. Because the news is delivered briefly and there is no repetition.
7) Not all areas in Indonesia are covered by electricity and radio waves. This is related to equitable development and mountainous contours in the territory of Indonesia. Not everyone has television and radio sets, this also depends on the economic level of the Indonesian population, which is still a lot of poor people.
c) Online media
1) Some newspapers provide paid epapers and people are lazy to take a break because they prefer to open free sites that may not update the news as fast and complete as epaper.
2) Not all Indonesians can access online news. Because not everyone understands how to use computers and the internet. This is related to economic factors and the level of education of the Indonesian people.
3) It takes credit and an internet network to access the news, that means more funds are needed for news updates. For the middle to upper economic community, this has become a necessity and they do not mind it, but for the poor they prefer to buy rice instead of buying internet credit.
4) News in online media is not always accurate, because it prioritizes news speed so that it is not as accurate as other media. So that readers do not enjoy reading the news because sometimes the writing is not thorough.
5) Reading articles in online media actually makes you lazy to think coherently, carefully, and thoroughly because typing in keywords can find the article you are looking for. And the article only contains the main thoughts and sometimes the results of the thoughts of other people that are not necessarily verified.
6) Reading / looking for news in online media also makes you less able to think focused because usually when looking for news, the public also opens social networking sites, downloading movies, mp3s and so on.