Persian rug. Artistic wonder that has existed for more than 2,500 years. It has always been a very important part of Iran’s culture. The carpets Persians have a variety of designs, styles and sizes. The most used material is wool, cotton and silk are also used. Formerly Persian rugs were made for the Court and the Nobles and were protected as treasures. There was a great demand for Persian rugs for the European Royal Court. To know the quality and durability of carpetsPersians you have to look at the number of knots per square centimeter, the more knots the better quality. A good Persian carpet must have more than 1,270 knots per square centimeter. Approximately 1,500 Persian rugs are kept in various museums and private collections around the world.
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- 1 History
- 1 Trajectory
- 2 Manufacturing
- 1 Knotting techniques
- 2 Looms
- 3 Tools
- 3 Styles of Persian Rugs
- 4 Sources
Persian rugs are an art form. Throughout history, Persia has been the artisanal carpet center .
It was Cyrus , the conqueror of Babylon in 539 BC , who introduced the art of Persian rugs. His grave is said to have been covered with precious Persian rugs.
During the kingdom of Shah Abbas (1571-1629) the Persian carpet trade and crafts flourished and contact with Europe began for the trade and export of Persian carpets . Thus , Isfahan City , the new capital of Persia , became one of the most glorious cities in the country.
A workplace was also created where designers and craftsmen worked to create splendid Persian rugs .
Most of the Persian rugs were made of silk , with gold and silver trim , further enhancing their beauty.
Pazyryk rug, s. Goes. C. Discovered in Pazyryk, Siberia.
In a single excavation, carried out in 1949, an exceptional Pazyryk rug was discovered in the midst of the ice in the Pazyryk Valley, in the Altai Mountains in Siberia. It was found in the grave of a Scythian prince. Carbon 14 tests show that the Pazyryk carpet was woven in the 5th century BC. C. It measures 1.83 meters wide by 2 meters long and has 3,600 symmetrical knots per square decimeter. The advanced weaving technique used in this carpet demonstrates a clear experience in mastering this art. Most experts believe that the Pazyryk rug is the result of a long evolution of the carpet manufacturing technique of at least a millennium. According to this theory, the appearance of the carpet weaving technique would date back at least 3,500 years.
The period of greatest splendor of Persian architecture and crafts occurred during the Safawiyeh dynasty, particularly during King Shah Abbas Safawi .
The eighteenth century brought a decrease in the activity of weaving, caused by national unrest after the fall of the Safawiyeh empire (1722).
This fall, however, is associated with the diffusion of traditional Persian motifs in new areas, as a consequence of great human displacement due to internal commotion.
In the 19th century, a strong resumption of carpet weaving took place throughout the Persian territory, at a time when the different decorative styles were totally related and intertwined with different specific areas and populations.
This revival arises strongly motivated by imports from European countries such as England . Initially, rugs designed and produced for local use, with the traditional colors and designs, departed for the Old British Empire , but over time, as could be expected, the producers had to adapt the models towards a more British or European aesthetic.
This trend deepened in the 20th century, along with a gradual deterioration in quality, possibly due to the deepening and assimilation of the rules of capitalism and standardization (LOWER COSTS, WAGES AND INCREASE PRODUCTION AND PROFITABILITY).
Such was the decline in quality, that to prevent the Persian tradition from deteriorating, in the 1930s Shah Mohamad Reza Pahlavi promoted the founding of an organism in order to keep alive the designs and techniques of the past, traditional and internationally famous.
Thereby created COMPANY STATE OF RUGS PERSIAN who took the name, Sherkate Farsh Iran (company’s state carpet Iran ), which has high carried the prestige of these carpets for more than 40 years since it was created .
Today, there is more talk of Persian rugs than of oriental rugs, although there are countries like Turkey that have managed to earn their place in the world of rugs.
The manufacture of the carpets is manual, and some tools are used such as the looms, scissors, knives, combs and jigs.
Two main knotting techniques stand out: the asymmetric knot, called the Persian knot as well as, Senneh or Farsibaft and the symmetrical knot, known as the Turkish knot, called Ghiordes or Turkbaft.
We clearly differentiate them because the asymmetric knot bears both warps closed by the wool yarn, and on the other hand, in the symmetrical one, the warps are free.
It should be noted that the Persian or asymmetric knot is more resistant because the hair in these rugs has a horizontal fall, covering and protecting the knots, thus giving it a longer useful life.
There are four types of looms: the horizontal loom, the fixed vertical loom, the Tabriz-type vertical loom, and the vertical rolling bed loom.
The horizontal loom is the most primitive of the four. It simply consists of two wooden poles between which the woolen threads lie longitudinally. During work, the warp threads are kept taut thanks to two posts tied to the ends of each rod and nailed to the ground.
The fixed vertical loom , It is a vertical frame whose crossbars support the ends of two round and parallel rods called enjullos. Between these two enjullos the threads of the weft are fixed. The fabric always starts at the bottom. During work, the worker is seated on a plank that is supported by the bars of two scaffolds fixed to the vertical crossbars of the loom. As the knotting progresses, the plank that serves as the seat should be raised at the same time as the carpet. This type of loom is used for carpets whose length does not exceed that of the loom, that is, three meters.
The so-called Tabriz loom is an improvement on the vertical loom. In this type of loom, the warp threads are wound from the upper coil to the lower coil, under which they pass before returning to the upper coil. This system has the advantage of being able to knot pieces of equal length twice the height of the loom.
The rolling bed loom is the most advanced version of the vertical loom. All the warp yarn necessary for knotting the carpet is wound in the upper pile, while the carpet is wound in the lower bobbin as work progresses. This loom allows you to make rugs of any length.
The tools used in making a carpet are few and very simple. The knife is used to cut the strands of the knot; completely made of metal, sometimes consisting of a hook that is used to tie. The comb is made of several metal sheets whose ends separate to form the teeth. It is used to tighten the weft or threads against the row of knots. The scissors , flat and long, are used to review the strands of the carpet.
Persian Carpet Styles
There are around 60 styles of rugs, all very different, of high quality and in high demand in the market.
Afshar ‘ – Afshar Persian rugs are of excellent quality with Geometric patterns made in Sharh Babak, Sirjan and Rafsanjan. These Persian rugs have straight line designs. Natural colors are generally used, such as light red, caki, and ivory. Its textures are thin and wool.
Isfahan – Isfahan Persian rugs are very symmetrical and have a medallion in the center. Isfahan’s most famous weaver is called Serafian. These Persian rugs have shades of ivory with blue and pink. Sometimes silk can be found on newer models.
Kashan – They are of designs with curvatures, a medallion in the center and Persian floral themes. Persian Kashan rugs are of the most beautiful and best quality.
Qom – These Persian rugs made in Qom have great views, nature drawings, cities, and facts of history. Most are small in size. Many people hang them on the walls, they are very fine and beautiful Persian rugs. Its texture is soft and very thin silk with sheep wool.
Tabriz – The old Persian rugs from Tabriz are of very good quality, while the new ones are not so good and they are painted with chemicals instead of vegetable paints.