Parts of the narrative text

The narrative text is defined as the account of facts and events that take place in a specific place and time or space. This story includes the development and participation of different characters that can be imaginary or real.


There are different types of narrative texts within which the story is, which is a narration in a brief and fictitious way; the chronicle that is in charge of relating real events in a chronological order and the novel, the latter is more extensive and complex than the story.


  • 1Parts of the narrative text
    • 1General structure
    • 2External and internal structure

Parts of the narrative text

General structure

Although each author has a specific and particular style in his narration, there are general and specific rules that must be respected in narrative texts. The general structure is one of them, in this case it is made up of three parts:

  • Approach or introduction

In this part the characters are introduced. An initial situation is presented that may be a conflict that occurs to the characters in a place and at a certain time.

  • Conflict or knot

In this second part of the events that were presented in the introduction are developed. The characters involved get involved in the conflict and each one acts depending on the function of the objective they want to achieve.

  • Solution or outcome

This is the last part of the story in which the conflict of the initial part is resolved. The ending can vary, it can be a happy, sad, positive, negative or tragic ending.

External and internal structure

The external structure includes the division of the different contents into chapters, parts, songs, sequences, treatises, among others. The internal elements that are part of the narration are developed.

  • Storyteller

He is the one in charge of telling the story and the facts. The narrator can be:


  • Omniscient narrator

He has a complete view of the story and is oblivious to the facts. The omniscient narrator has complete and perfect knowledge of what all the characters in the narrative think, feel, and do. It is possible that sometimes it intervenes to comment on the situations that occur or on the action of some characters.

  • External observer narrator

It narrates the facts from an external part without being included in the story. This is the observer or witness narrator who limits himself to exposing the narration of the events as they occurred without removing or putting anything, as if it were a video camera. In the same way it does it with the characters that are only narrated by the way they act and what they say or by what other characters tell about them.

  • Narrator who tells his story

The narrator is the main character of the narrative text and is in charge of telling the whole story. He is the protagonist of the story.

  • Characters

These are the individuals, things, or animals that are part of the story. The protagonist constitutes being the main character who has the confrontation in the conflict, the antagonist is the one who opposes what the protagonist does, this is the villain.

  • Setting

This part reflects the place or space in which events and time take place. It is characterized by being external or internal.

  • Internal setting

It has an order in which the facts of the story unfold. It’s divided in:

  • Retrospective order

When it returns to the past originating from a specific point of action. It happens mostly in detective stories.

  • Anticipatory order

When events are anticipated that will occur at a later time.

  • Linear or chronological order

When the action occurs from start to finish. Most narrative texts are done this way.

  • External setting

Time in historical period in which action takes place.


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