Pollution caused by Oil Spill
In recent times the human being has generated a very shocking problem about the environment and especially in marine resources; either due to an accident or improper practice that affects the planet in general .
For that reason, it is essential to know the problem of oil spill contamination . Its main characteristics, causes, consequences and measures to prevent or reduce this type of chemical pollution on natural resources.
Oil is a liquid natural resource of black color, with a mixture of chemicals or hydrocarbons, especially hydrogen and coal . It is very polluting and its spillage due to various factors is very frequent in ocean waters.
In this sense , oil pollution is one that occurs especially on marine or aquatic resources due to chemical oil spills , which alter water quality, diversity of species that make life and human health.
( Also read: All about Soil Pollution )
Main characteristics of oil pollution:
Environmental disasters or ecological catastrophe. It is a chemical, toxic, flammable and carcinogenic pollution. It causes the death of many species, birds are the most affected. It is not biodegradable. Its effects depend on the place, the moment, type of hydrocarbon, wind, ocean currents, water temperature, quantity and exposure.
What the cause?
The main causes that give rise to this environmental problem are:
Shedding by human action in cities. Industrial zones. Drilling of gas wells. Leaks in ships. Breaking pipes that transport oil. Errors, broken equipment or lack of maintenance. War. Natural disasters. Deliberate acts and among other factors.
Therefore, the most important consequences of this contamination are :
Destruction of marine ecosystems. Death of species due to suffocation or poisoning. Hypothermia. Sublethal effects, blindness and difficulty flying in birds. Destruction of the power supply of the species. Effect on the reproduction of organisms, effect of phytoplankton in photosynthesis. Impact on fishing and tourism activity. Imbalances in biological processes, carcinogens in the food chain and later in human health.
Oil pollution prevention
Thus, the main measures to prevent oil pollution are : (environmental information, emergency action plan, equipment maintenance, preparation or training of oil vessel operators, environmental management, compliance with the legal framework, justice economic and fiscal).
As for its mitigation , the main actions are containment and collection, pumping by aspiration, centrifugation, adhesion to drum or rotating discs, absorbent fibers, dispersants, incineration, biodegradation, cleaning of the coasts and that nature acts on its own.
In conclusion, it is important that humanity understands that water is more important than oil and that we depend on this vital liquid for existence on earth .
The contamination by crude or refined oil is produced accidentally or deliberately from different sources. The oil spill or black tide impacts mainly on the ecosystem where it originates, alters the surrounding environment, air, water, soil, flora, fauna and the quality of human life