Miñardi . Knitting technique done manually. This technique argues that it was brought to America by the Jesuit Missions. It is the work of making lace for clothes. The crochet originated in Arabia, from eastern Tibet to western Spain, following the Arab trade routes to other Mediterranean countries. In this technique, a background fabric is stretched and stretched into a frame. The running thread is held underneath the fabric. A needle with a hook is inserted downward and a loop of working thread drawn through the fabric.
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- 1 Etymology of the word
- 2 History of Crochet
- 1 Tambour and the birth of crochet
- 2 Crochet hook technique
- 3 Miñardi technique
- 3.1 Basic points
- 3.2 Steps to weave the Miñardi technique
- 3.3 Joints of the points
- 4 Execution of garments
- 3 Sources
Etymology of the word
The word “miñardi” comes from the French term mignardise, with the same meaning: lacework for clothing. According to the Little Illustrated Larousse, the synonym appears: Hairpin Crochet, the Millaré, hairpin lace loom.
It is generally called crochet, as the French, Belgians, Hispanics, and Italians do. The Dutch call it “haken”, the Danish people “haekling”, the Norwegians “hekling” and the Swiss “virkning”.
Thanks to archaeological studies, written sources and illustrated representations, it has been concluded that crochet, embroidery and other weaving styles date from very ancient times. But there is no fixed date of when this art began. The word comes from “croc” or “croche” which is a French word for hook, and for the Norse the word was “krokr”.
According to crochet expert Annie Potter, modern crochet art as we know it dates from the 16th century . It was known as a “crochet lace” in France and a “chain lace” in England .
For Lis Paludan, another writer-researcher, who limited his search for the origins of crochet in Europe, gives us three interesting theories:
- Crochet originated in Arabia, from eastern Tibet to western Spain, following the Arabs’ trade routes to other Mediterranean countries.
- The earliest evidence of crochet came from South America , where a primitive tribe used crocheted ornaments in their puberty rites.
- In China , early examples of three-dimensional crochet dolls were found.
Paludan, states that there is basically no convincing evidence of what the old art of crochet is like or when it started. In Italy it was known in the 16th century as “the nun’s job”, where the nuns were in charge of creating the textiles for the churches.
Tambour and the birth of crochet
Research suggests that crochet is probably derived from Chinese needlework, a very old form of embroidery known in Turkey , India, Persia, and North Africa, which reached Europe in the 1700s and was known as “tambouring,” of the “French tambour” or the drum.
In this technique, a background fabric is stretched and stretched into a frame. The running thread is held underneath the fabric. A needle with a hook is inserted downward and a loop of working thread drawn through the fabric.
With the loop still on the hook, the hook is then inserted a little further forward and another loop of the performance thread is drawn and worked through the first loop to form a chain stitch. The tambour hooks were as thin as sewing needles, so the work must have been accomplished with the very fine thread.
At the end of the 18th century, the tambour evolved into what French called “crochet in the air,” when the background fabric was scrapped and the stitch on its own worked.
Crochet began to appear in Europe in the early 1800s and soon received a huge push by Mlle. Riego de la Branchardiere, who was best known for his ability to take the old-style needle of the bobbin and lace, designed the crochet patterns that can be easily duplicated. She published many books on crochet patterns so that millions of women could start copying her designs. Mlle. Riego also claimed to have invented “Lace-Like,” today called Irish crochet.
Crochet needle technique
Wardrobe knitted with the crochet technique
Aboard a needle crochet for Spanish – speaking countries, France and Belgium ; crochet in Spain ; unceto in Italy; haken in the Netherlands and hackling in Denmark; Heckling in Norway and Virking in Sweden, I had the opportunity to travel through time and different cultures .
Which allowed me to observe the use that this tool gave to the women of each place. And as that use determined a cultural geographical identity: that is why today we speak of Scottish, Irish or Tunisian crochet.
Although the name alludes to the origin, the various wefts of the fabrics also caught my attention and this led me to investigate the causes that motivated them. Some, directly related to geography, its direct consequence: climate. Obviously, the busier wefts responded to harsh climates and popular clothing. This is the case of the Scottish, Tunisian or Bosnian.
The plots of the lace, on the other hand, responded to other causes more related to political-economic vicissitudes; such as wartime, crop losses, the need to conquer new markets, etc. One of the best-known examples, perhaps is that of Ireland, that for warlike reasons his women had to sustain the economy, contesting the market of Venetian lace makers. Achieving a crocheted imitation of the needlepoint that over time developed its own character and whose symbol is precisely the world famous “Irish rose”.
The other social cause that motivates the delicacy of the lace is that they were destined for more elitist uses as clothing for the court and the clergy. These observations inevitably led to comparing the similarity or imitation of the different techniques. For example:
- The crochet filet: is a copy of the shuttle filet.
- Brussels: it is a crochet imitation of bobbin lace.
- Ireland: it is a crochet imitation of needlepoint.
- Miñardi: a crocheted version of the lace of Tenerife known in America as ñandutí or randas.
The macrame and tatting knots are very similar. The experience and observation led to another conclusion.
- First of all, the tissue is born in the hands of Adam. Since he is the one who managed to catch a fish, tie a canoe or a dinosaur. Two activities of permanent validity that can be appreciated in any fishing or sailor town since the macrame is based on sailor knots. Eva takes these techniques and gives it a personal and home use. From there it begins to be a female activity, even almost obligatory in certain times and places.
- Secondly, apart from some events such as those of the Asociación de Bordadoras Argentina (ABA), it has been noted that master designers and international juries are, mostly men, mentor of Master Niebling in the lace of five needles.
And finally, it has been seen that throughout history the production, industrialization and commercialization of fibers were and are managed by men, be it wool , silk, cotton , etc.
Miñardi technique fabric
- A fork
- Yarn or wool
Basic Point: Make a chain with the “starter” crochet, come to the center of the fork at the top and pass the thread that is behind the chain. Pass the crochet to the back of the fork, through the middle of it, adjust and center. (3) Turn the fork to the left, pass the crochet through the middle of the curl take one loop and with another loop close the half stitch. Rotate the fork to the same side by first turning the needle back and repeat again.
For the samples take 10 rollers from each side and close.
- Vanilla: start by climbing with chains to the edge of the roll, from the center of the strip. Take the curler by tapping the needle from back to front with a half stitch, make a chain and do the same with each curl, until you reach the last curl, from there go with chains to the center, make a last stitch on each side of the center, go up with chains to the other edge, continue with half stitch and chain as we did on the other side. At the last point continue with chains until you reach the center make a last stitch under the first loop and finish off with a last point where we start the chain.
- Fans: in this case the sample must be 15 rollers. Climb up with chains to the edge, knit 5 rollers together with 1 half stitch, 2 chains; knit a single loop with a half stitch and separate it with 2 chains, knit the next 4 in the same way (a single crochet on the loop and two chains); finish the row knitting the last 5 together with 1 half stitch, in the same way we did with the vanilla we go to the other side of the strip. Knit the first 5 one by one (2 chains, 1 single crochet in the loop), the middle 5 together with 1 single crochet and the remaining 5 in one (one single crochet in the loop and two chains). Reach the center finishing off like the vanilla.
- Ochitos: Knit 20 stitches up to one edge, take 4 rollers together with 1 half stitch, 4 chain stitch and finish the row in the same way, go to the other edge and do the same. Top off.
- Lace: knit just like vanilla on one side, go to the other edge. Knit 1 half stitch 1 peak in each loop (3 chains and 1 half stitch in the first one) and 1 half stitch. Finish the Row and Cast off.
Steps to weave the Miñardi technique
Materials to perform the Miñardi technique
- Fork and
- Step 1: make a chain with the crochet.
- Step 2: come to the center of the fork from above and pass the thread behind the chain.
- Step 3: Pass the crochet behind the fork, through the middle of the fork, adjust and center.
- Step 4: Turn the fork to the left, pass the crochet through the middle of the curl take one yarn over and with another yarn over close the half stitch.
- Step 5: Rotate the fork to the same side by first turning the needle back and repeat again.
- Step 6: Continue until you have the necessary number of rollers, count the same on both sides, and in the case of the sample continue from the center the necessary chains to reach the last knitted point again.
- Step 7: from the center of the strip. Take the curler by tapping the needle from back to front with a half stitch, make a chain and do the same with each curler, until you reach the last curl.
- Step 8: from there reach with chains to the center make a last stitch on each side of the center, climb with chains to the other edge, continue with half a point and chain as we did on the other side.
- Step 9: At the last point continue with chains until reaching the center make a last stitch under the first loop and finish off with a last point where we start the chain.
We make these samples with 2 basic strips of 20 points.
- Simple Braiding: Take 2 rollers from strip A and 2 from strip B, pass the 2 rollers in B through the 2 in strip A, take two curlers from strip B again and pass them through strip A, always alternating . This causes a spike to form.
- Double Braiding: Take 2 points from strip A and 2 from strip B, take 2 points from strip A and 2 from strip B, pass the last four through the first four, take 2 rollers on each side again (without alternating).
- On top: Take 1 loop from strip A, 1 loop from strip B, pass it through the loop of strip A and drop it, keeping the loop of strip B on the needle. Continue in the same way, when we get to the end knit the rollers that were on the needle like vanilla (1 half stitch and 1 chain).
- Auxiliary Chain Union: Knit 1 starting chain stitch, take 1 loop from each strip, as presented from the hairpin, and keeping the thread underneath make a last stitch. Continue the strip in the same way, always keeping the thread underneath.
- Chain Joints: We start with the first strip: knit 2 rollers with a half stitch, 3 chain stitches and take 2 rollers again with 1 half stitch. Continue to the end of the row, continue 1 chain stitch and take the first 2 curlers of the other strip with 1 half stitch, 1 chain and knit 1 half stitch under the 3 chains of the other row, 1 chain and 1 half stitch in the next 2 curls. Continue joining the two strips to the end. 1 chain and cast off at the beginning point with 1 last stitch.
- Union of Vareta: Take 2 rollers on one strip with a double crochet, take the 2 curlers on the other strip with 1 double crochet. Continue taking 2 rollers on each side with a double crochet.
The garments are achieved by combining these points with the different joints in a straight way as in scarves or shawls, or closing them in circles as in dresses.