Manufacture of Goat’s Milk cheese . Goat’s milk cheese is an excellent food as it is a concentrate of nutrients from this animal’s milk.
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- 1 History
- 2 Origins
- 3 Manufacture of goat’s milk cheese
- 4 Ingredients
- 5 Requirements for milk intended for the manufacture of cheese
- 6 Utensils necessary to make cheese
- 7 Procedure
- 8 Sources
The word cheese is derived from the Latin caseus. However in Roman times the term formaticum became famous among the legionaries, of caseus formatus, which means molded cheese. Thus one has to say French fromage, in Italian formaggio or in Catalan formatge. It is an ancient food whose origins may be earlier than written history.
Probably discovered in Central Asia or the Middle East, its manufacture spread to Europe and had become a sophisticated enterprise as far back as Roman times. As Rome’s influence waned, different local brewing techniques emerged. This diversity peaked in the early industrial era and has declined to some extent since then due to mechanization and economic factors.
For the ancient Greeks ” the cheese was a gift from the gods “. There are hundreds of varieties of cheese. Its different styles and flavors are the result of the use of different species of bacteria and molds, different levels of cream in the milk , variations in the curing time, different treatments in its process and different breeds of cows , goats or the mammal whose milk be used. Other factors include the diet of the cattle and the addition of flavoring agents such as herbs, spices or smoked. Whether or not the milk is pasteurized can also affect the taste.
The origins of cheese making are in dispute and cannot be accurately dated, although it is estimated to be between 8000 BC. C. (when the goat is domesticated ) and the 3000 a. C.
Manufacture of goat’s milk cheese
Goat’s milk cheese is an excellent food as it is a concentrated nutrient in milk. The contribution of proteins of high biological value and the presence of the phosphorous-calcium-vitamin D complex are highlighted .
100g of this type of cheese has been shown to provide approximately 25g of fat, 20g of protein, 3.5g of mineral salts, 2.5g of carbohydrates , 49g of water and 315 calories.
Requirements for milk intended for the manufacture of cheese
It can be affirmed that all the milk that meets the sanitary aspects guarantees the basic quality requirements for cheese making. The hygienic quality implies that: The milk comes from healthy animals and does not contain antibiotics (do not use milk after 4 days after applying the last treatment).
The milker is in perfect health and maintains the hygiene of his hands. The utensils will be washed with detergent or treated with hot water to more than 850.
The milk will be filtered, pasteurized for 20 or 30 minutes.
The workplace with ideal hygienic conditions.
Utensils necessary for making cheese
- Thermometer from 0 to 1000 C.
- Plastic, aluminum or stainless steel molds (with holes to favor the elimination of serum).
- Vessels to pasteurize or coagulate milk (it is preferable that heating be done in a water bath)
- Bucket, jug, strainer and fine linen.
- Long-handled scoop and serum container and cutting instrument.
Add to the pasteurized milk with constant and chilled stirring (34-350C), 1/8 liters of yogurt for every 100 liters of milk (125ml / 100 liters of milk) and 30ml of prepared 40% calcium chloride per 100 liters milk.
Milk is coagulated by adding any of the commonly used coagulating enzymes, commercial rennet of animal or microbial origin, always with agitation and at a temperature of 34-350C. In all cases, enough is added to obtain an initial clotting time of 10-15 min (at which time the milk loses its liquid condition it begins to clot or cut).
Cut the clot or curd approximately 40 min after initial coagulation into small pieces 1-2 cm long, using a stainless steel or aluminum instrument for cutting. The resulting grains will be uneven because horizontal cuts can only be made at an angle.
With the help of a trowel, long-handled ladle or other appropriate utensil, the agitation of the grains is started immediately to promote the expulsion of the serum. Shake slowly at start to avoid excessive breakdown of the beans and reduce losses. Each 10 liters of milk can obtain approximately 1kg of cheese.
Keep stirring until the beans reach the proper consistency and size (approximately 40min). In this time the agitation does not have to be constant, it can be stopped two or three times for 3 min, as long as the grain maintains its individuality. Almost all of the serum is removed until a small film covers the grain. With constant agitation we proceed to salt the grains, slowly pouring a brine at 750C, prepared as follows:
- Calculate the amount of water based on 100 of the amount of milk processed (1 liter of milk / 10 liters of water).
- Calculate the amount of salt at the rate of 3% of the amount of processed milk (0.3kg salt / 10 liters of milk).
- Dilute the amount of salt in the calculated water and heat it to a temperature above 850C.
- Filter the brine when pouring it.
- Determine the desired salinity sensory after 5 min of stirring, taking a certain amount of grains in your hand and after squeezing and tasting it, discontinue or not the salting.
- Pour the grains on a colander or cloth not very closed in order to let the serum drain spontaneously for 10-15 min.
If molds are not available, the cloth used to drain the grains will be useful, since the curd’s own weight is enough to continue draining the excess whey, if a knot is made to press it strongly. If molds are available and all cupiera curd in one of them, pressing is carried out on the fabric itself.
Pressing is a simple operation aimed at enhancing the drainage of the serum. It is carried out in 2 steps: In the first one, the weight is placed one or two times the weight of the cheese for one hour and in the second, the cheese is turned in its own mold and cloth, but with a weight equivalent to 3-5 times its own weight, for at least one hour.
The pressing time for fresh white cheese is normally one to two hours, but it can be prolonged if you want to obtain a drier product. To guarantee the conservation and durability of the cheese, it must be refrigerated at temperatures below 100C without freezing.