For students, the task of making papers has become a natural thing, especially for students. Almost every lecturer in every subject likes to give assignments to make papers. At least, in one semester there is one or more papers that must be submitted to the ladies and gentlemen of the lecturer.
For those who are used to, writing a paper might be just an easy matter. But for those who are not familiar, writing this paper may be quite difficult. Well, for those of you who don’t understand how to make a good and correct paper, the following will present some complete guidelines for you.
Interestingly, this guide will not only teach you about how to make good and correct papers, but how to make your paper interesting and liked by lecturers or teachers. Listen carefully.
Understand what a paper is first?
Before going in on the details of the steps to make a paper, you certainly need to know what the problem is. A simple explanation, a paper is a scientific paper that contains ideas, ideas, research reports, observational reports, or activity reports, which aim to be reported, either as an assignment or to be read in public.
If according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), papers are interpreted in two ways, namely (1) papers are official writings on a subject made with the intention of being read out in public during a trial and often compiled for publication; or (2) student or student papers made as reports on the results of school or tertiary work.
So, the main point of the paper is that it is a written work, and is scientific or academic in nature. Therefore, the style of writing and also the procedures for writing in a paper must also be considered alias should not be arbitrary. There is a general systematics that you must follow to write a paper.
Concerning language style, you also have to use good and correct Indonesian spelling in accordance with Enhanced Spelling (EYD). You can also deepen the writing aspect by reading the article 11 Things You Need to Do So that the Thesis is Quickly Done .
Because it must be in accordance with general rules, then you also need to know what kind of paper should be written. In general, systematic papers are divided into three main sections, namely:
The third part of this paper must be in every paper written. However, writing as a chapter or sub-chapter title can be flexible. You can add a few more chapters in it according to the theme of the discussion.
In addition, the paper must also be equipped with a cover, preface and also bibliography. The cover or front page of the paper is very important to show a general description of the paper. In addition, you can also complete it with a table of contents paper.
Systematically good papers must also pay attention to the proportions of each part. For the cover until the introduction, do not get too much, or even more than the contents. Similarly, the closing part must also be brief. Ideally, content dominates 60 to 80 percent of the total pages.
Preface can be put before the table of contents. How to write a preface to a paper is quite easy. However, it should not be careless. Remember, the introduction to the paper is not a place to confide in a lot of thanks and long-winded thanks. The language used must still use formal language according to EYD.
Some things that need to be written in the preface for example: thanksgiving for the completion of the paper, the theme of the paper, the purpose of the paper, the benefits of the paper, expectations of the reader of the paper. For more details, please read the sample introductory paper .
Table of Contents Papers
The table of contents for the paper can be placed on the page before the introduction. The table of contents must also be completed with page numbering to make it easier for readers to find the part of the chapter in question. To be clear, the following is an example of a table of contents that can be made:
- Front page ………
- Foreword ………
- Table of contents ………..
- Chapter I Introduction ………
- Chapter II Contents ………
- (Section 1) ……….
- (Section 2) ………
- Chapter III closing …………
- References …………
Write the introductory chapter of the paper
The introductory chapter in the paper can be divided into several sub-chapters such as background, objectives, benefits and problem formulation. However, papers are generally simplified with only one section.
Although made in one piece, but in it still must contain some important points from the introduction of the paper. Key points in the introductory chapter of the paper that need to be addressed include:
- The background of writing a paper is related to the discussion in the contents section.
- The purpose or benefit of writing a paper
- What is the importance of writing the paper
- Formulation or limitations of the problem to be discussed
In essence, the introduction of the paper must be able to provide a general picture that can lead the reader to enter into further discussion in the contents section. So, remember to write background in a focused way. The introduction should also be written in a concise, concise and clear manner. Try to make the introduction no more than 20 percent of the total paper pages.
Most paper writers make long-winded backgrounds and have nothing to do with the part that will be discussed in the contents. Another error, what is conveyed in the background, is only a snippet from the contents of the paper or just the same as the summary of the contents of the paper.
Write chapter contents of paper
The contents of the paper can also be made in one piece and can also be divided into several sub-chapters. This adjusts the needs and short length of the contents of the paper. If a short paper is made, or only 5 pages are missing, then the contents section can be made in one section.
However, if the paper is long enough, or more than 5 hamalan, even up to dozens of pages, then dividing the contents of the chapter into several sub-chapters will be better. This will help the reader to more easily read and understand the contents of your paper.
The contents of this paper are the main points of writing a paper. That is, all the problems or things that are presented in the introduction must be answered and described in the discussion section of the contents of the paper. Do not let the discussion on the contents of the paper still leave questions and other problems.
Write the closing chapter of the paper
The concluding chapter of the paper is made in very short portions. This concluding chapter contains conclusions or an overview of the entire contents of the paper submitted. The concluding chapter is useful for reaffirming the answers or main points delivered in the contents section of the paper.
This concluding chapter can also be used as a short answer to the formulation of the problem or the limits of the problem presented in the introduction. The goal, readers who want to know the final answer in general can immediately look at the concluding chapter without having to read the entire contents of the paper. Therefore, what is conveyed at this conclusion must be appropriate and has been conveyed in the contents section.
In addition to conclusions, the concluding chapter of the paper can also be supplemented with advice. Suggestions submitted can be intended for certain parties concerned, suggestions for further research or suggestions for readers and the general public. However, it is important to note that the suggestions made must also be related to the contents of the paper, especially in the conclusions section. Don’t make suggestions that have nothing to do with the problem being discussed or conveyed.
The conclusions and suggestions made must be short and easy to understand. This concluding section should only represent less than 5 percent or a maximum of 10 percent of the total pages of the entire paper.
How to Write a Bibliography
Because papers are scientific papers, it is important to always include a bibliography. Bibliography according to KBBI is a list in which includes the title of the book, the name of the author, publisher, and so on which is placed at the end of an essay or book, and arranged alphabetically.
This bibliography is important to avoid scientific work that is plagiarism. In addition, you are also obliged to respect written works that have been produced by other people or parties by including them in the bibliography. By writing a bibliography, it will also be seen about the broad scope of information taken and from where the information was obtained.
How to write a bibliography from journals, from books and from the internet that you can use there are various. Writing official bibliography there are indeed several styles. Some ways to write a bibliography that is commonly used in scientific papers for example:
- AMA (American Medical Association) Style,
- APA (American Psychological Association) Style,
- Chicago Style,
- GOST Style,
- Harvard Style.
- MLA (Modern Language of America) Style,
- Turabian Style,
- Vancouver Style,
The following are some examples of ways to write a bibliography from various sources that you can use as a guide.
How to write a bibliography from the book:
- Conley, Debora. 2012. The Daily Miracle: an Introduction to Journalism. Oxford University Press: New York.
- Anna, N & Santoso, CL. 1997. Child Education, edk 5. Family Press: Jakarta.
- Kotler, P, Adam, S, Brown, L & Armstrong, G. 2003. Principles of Marketing, 2 ndedn . Pearson Education Australia: Melbourne.
- Blue Space. 1997. Small Type Aircraft Construction . PT. Angkasa Biru: Bandung.
How to write a bibliography from a journal:
- Hall, M. 1999. ‘Breaking the Silence: Marginalization of Registered Nurses Employed in Nursing Homes‘. Contemporary Nurse, vol. 8, no. 1, hh. 232-237.
- Davis, L, Mohay, H & Edwards, H. 2003. ‘ Mothers’ Involvement in Caring for Their Premature Infants: An Historical Overview‘. Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 42, no. 6, hh. 578–86.
- Wijaya, K, Phillips, M & Syarif, H. 2002. ‘Selection of large-scale data storage systems’, Indonesian Informatics Journal, vol. 1, no. 3, hh. 132-140.
How to write a bibliography from a newspaper:
- Taufiqul, T. 2006. ‘For patting on the tray’. Media Indonesia, March 3, p. 13
- Mohammed Azam Noor. (1999, July 3). ‘ Why Ziana Zain as Literary Person for 1998? ‘. New Straits Times: 25.
How to write a bibliography from the internet:
- Trochim, WM. 2000. The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 2nd edn,updated 2 August 2000, seen November 14, 2001, <http://socialresearchmethods.net/kb/index.htm>.
- Garcia, P.2004. ‘Pragmatic Comprehension Of High and Low Level Language Learners’. TESL-EJ, vol 8, no. 2, viewed December 2, 2005, <http://berkeley.edu/TESL-EJ/ej30/a!.html>.
- Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs 2004, The Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, Canberra, seen 7 March 2004, <http://www.immi.gov.au/>.
- MP3-mac.com .2003. What is MP3? . seen October 15, 2003, <http://www.mp3-mac.com/Pages/What_is_MP3.html>.
- Lung Cancer. 2004. msn Health, seen June 12, 2004, <http://content.health.msn.com/condition_center/lung_cancer/default.htm>
How to write a bibliography from a personal interview:
- Mahathir Mohamed (1999, April 20). Prime Minister of Malaysia. Personal Interview. Kuala Lumpur.
Other provisions in writing a bibliography:
In addition to some examples of ways to write a bibliography above, there are some other conditions that you also need to consider, as follows:
- Writing a bibliography in the second line and so on indented.
- Arranged sequentially according to the first alphabet (A to Z).
- All references used to write a paper must be included in the bibliography
In-depth discussion about writing a bibliography can be seen in the article how to write a bibliography with examples .
Tips on writing papers that are liked by lecturers and teachers
Writing a paper that is improvised maybe not difficult. But, writing a paper that the reader likes, especially for lecturers and teachers may not be easy for students. Well, here are tips on writing easy and practical papers that you can try. By applying these practical tips, you can make your paper look more attractive so that lecturers and teachers will like it more.
- Make sure the contents of the paper are written in a dense and clear manner, meaning do not beat around the bush.
- Do not repeat too many discussions or repetitions. This will make the paper look more pedantic.
- Arrange papers according to systematic papers that are good and right.
- Make the writing coherent so that the problem outline is easy to understand.
- Use formal or official language. Don’t make slang or relaxed sentences into papers.
- Do not display abbreviations that are incompatible with EYD, such as those (# which), etc. (# and so on), etc. (# and others), etc. (# and so on).
- Create sentences in a simple way so that your sentences are easy to understand. The method is to make short sentences. Avoid making double storey compound sentences. Sentences that are too long will make the reader have difficulty reading.
- Make the paragraph short and focused. That is, in one paragraph there can only be one point of thought. Try each paragraph is also not too long.
- Do not until there is a typoor typographical errors in any writing.
- Include complete, extensive and appropriate reference sources. Don’t make a paper with only one or two reference sources or your paper will be easily doubted.
- Take references only from trusted sources. It’s better if the majority comes from books, and a little from internet sources. If it’s from an internet source, make sure the source is also from a trusted site. Avoid taking from sites with personal extensions such as … (dot) blogspot (dot) com, … (dot) wordpress (dot) com, and the like, unless the site is trusted or you have had difficulties with lecturers or teachers and are allowed. Some lecturers also often avoid internet sources from Wikipedia.
- Fulfill all special rules given by the lecturer or teacher. So, like a teacher asking for papers 5 to 8 pages, don’t make less than that or more than the number of pages