Many types of diseases of cattle are transmitted. Broadly, they can be divided into the following three classes –
A. Infectious diseases or contagious diseases.
B. Common diseases or common illnesses.
C. Parasitic disease.
Infectious diseases (contagious diseases)
Infectious diseases spread from one cattle to many cattle to many cattle by contagion or touching. Farmers are aware that these contagious diseases usually take the form of epidemics. Infectious diseases are often spread by viruses, but their path of propagation in different diseases varies. For example, the virus of hoof disease keeps falling from the saliva of the sick animal and gout enters the water and makes it contaminated. Many animals fall prey to it through this deep water. Bacteria of other infectious diseases also make many animals prone to disease by the water falling from the dead water skin or sneeze. Therefore, if any contagious disease spreads in the village or neighboring village, the following measures are effective for the protection of cattle –
- First of all, the outbreak of the disease should be reported to your mild livestock assistant or the animal husbandry officer of the block (block).
- If the disease spreads in the neighboring village, then the movement of cattle or herders from that village should be stopped.
- Watering of cattle in public ponds or diets should be stopped.
- Sending animals to public pasture should be stopped immediately.
- Animals in distress should be kept separate from other healthy animals.
- Throwing an animal full of infectious disease is not free from danger. Stripping skin is also dangerous. Dead animals should be burnt or buried 5-6 feet in a pit with lime (methodically).
- The place where the sick animal is kept or dead should be washed thoroughly with a solution of phenyl or sprinkled clean lime there so that the bacteria or viruses of the disease die.
- People who buy and sell skins can also take this disease from one village to another. At this time, its purchase and sale should be stopped.
This disease causes more problems to cows and buffaloes. Sheep and pigs also get this disease. Its outbreak mostly occurs in the rain.
Symptoms – The body temperature rises and the animal becomes lethargic. The throat of the patient animal is swollen due to which there is difficulty in swallowing food. So the animal gives up eating and drinking. The swelling remains hot and it hurts. The animal has difficulty in breathing, some animals also have constipation and then loose stools. The sick animal dies within 6 to 24 hours. Saliva falls from the animal’s mouth.
Medicine – It is necessary to adopt all methods of prevention and prevention of infectious diseases. Patient animal should be treated immediately. It is beneficial to secure the cattle by putting a restraining hinge before the rainy season. Its free vaccination has been arranged by the department.
come. Poisonism (Black Quarter)
This disease also spreads mostly in the rainy season. Its specialty is that it hunts only healthy calves aged six months to 18 months. It is also called as Sujwa.
Symptoms – The back of the animal is swollen from this disease. The animal starts limping. The front leg of an animal is also swollen. Swelling can gradually spread to another part of the body. There is a lot of pain in swelling and there is a sound of murmur on pressing it. The body temperature is 104 to 106 degrees. Later the swelling rot. And there is rotten wound at that place.
Medical methods of prevention and prevention of infectious diseases, which are described elsewhere in this booklet, should be adopted. Animals suffering from disease should be treated with the help of veterinary medicine. Prevention of this disease should be provided to all healthy animals before the rainy season.
I. Spleen or anthrax
It is also a terrible infectious disease. An animal who succumbs to this disease dies soon. Apart from the cattle of this disease, there are also sheep, goats and horses.
Symptoms – High fever from 106 degree to 107 degree. After death, blood starts flowing through the nose, urine and digestive system. The inflamed animal gets inflamed on various parts of the body. The spleen is enlarged and the stomach swells.
Medical – Prevent infectious diseases and adopt methods of prevention and get veterinary services. This disease is also endemic. That is why there is no risk of the animal getting sick if the animals are kept in time.
E. Khurha – Muhampaka (Foot and Mouth Disease)
This disease is very legible and its infection is very fast. Although the probability of dying of the infested animal is very low, but this disease causes great harm to the cattle owners because the animal becomes weak and its efficiency and production is reduced for a long time. Apart from cows, bulls and buffaloes, this disease also makes sheep their prey.
Symptoms – Symptoms of this disease like fever, anorexia with food, reduced yield, small rash first in mouth and hoof and then after cooking.
Medicine – Apply acid on all remedies prescribed to prevent infectious disease. Mouth ulcers can be cleaned with a 2 percent solution of alum. The wound of the foot should be washed with phenyl solution. Coating of basil or neem leaves in the foot has also proved beneficial. In the village, the hoof-flattened footpath should be allowed to pass through it to the bereaved animals. It is mandatory to protect the wounds from the fly.
Prevention – The animal should be given anti-disease hinges twice a year within six months.
A. Animal – Tuberculosis (TB)
There is also a need to be very cautious from this disease to protect the health of human beings, because this disease can also engulf humans living in contact with animals or using milk.
Symptoms – The animal becomes weak and lethargic. Sometimes blood comes out from the nose, dry cough can also occur. Food interest decreases and his lungs become inflamed.
Medical – Prevention from infectious diseases should be arranged. After conducting an animal check on suspicion
Make arrangements to keep it completely separate. The disease is only appropriate to send the cattle to the Go-House as soon as possible, as it is an incurable disease.
Milk cattle have this disease for two reasons. The first reason is injury to the udder or bite of the was and second reason is that infectious bacteria would enter the udder. Bacteria enter the udder due to tying the animal in dirty marshland and inadvertence of the milkman. Irregular milk milking is also an invitation to Thanel disease, usually a cow that gives more milk – buffalo becomes a victim.
Symptoms – The udder becomes hot and red, swelling in it, body temperature increases, loss of appetite, reduced milk production, changes in milk color and coagulation in milk are the main symptoms of this disease.
Medicine – Animals should be given light and digestible food. The swollen area should be baked. Antiviotic medicine or ointments should be used in the opinion of the veterinarian. Cattle infested with Thanail should be milked at the end.
R Contagious abortion
This disease is common to cows and buffaloes. Sometimes a sheep goat also gets infested with it.
Symptoms – First the animal is restless and all the signs of childbirth are visible. The fluid starts flowing from the vulva. Usually, by the fifth, sixth month these symptoms start appearing and miscarriage occurs. Often the zer remains inside.
Medical – Make complete arrangements for cleanliness. Sick animals should be separated. After miscarriage, the back should be washed with lukewarm water. The abortion fetus must be burned. Whoever has an abortion at the place should be washed with antibacterial solution. A veterinarian should be called and availed of their services.
Note – By giving the animal of 6 to 8 months of the disease (brucellosis), the risk of this disease is reduced.
Common diseases or common illnesses
Apart from infectious diseases, there are also many common diseases which reduce the production capacity of animals. These diseases are not very terrible, but if not treated in time, can prove very dangerous. The symptoms of common ailments and the methods of first aid are explained below.
The animal becomes afebrile due to eating large amounts of green and succulent fodder, wet feed or pulses. Especially, by eating too much of the juicy fodder too quickly, this disease is caused. Bacha – This disease can also occur due to Bachi drinking too much milk. If the digestive power is weak, the cattle are more likely to suffer from this disease.
- Suddenly flatulence occurs. Mostly, the left stomach of the animal swells first. On the patting of the stomach, the sound of a drum (dhap – dhap) comes out.
- The animal starts to moan. Foley looks towards the stomach.
- The animal has difficulty breathing.
- When the disease progresses, the animal leaves the feed.
- Discomfort increases.
- Standing down and looking sideways.
- In the acute stage of the disease, the animal repeatedly lies and stands.
- The animal is sometimes seen hanging out and gasping.
- The back legs slam the bar.
Note: If not treated immediately, the patient may also die.
- Massage should be done by applying pressure on the left abdomen of the animal.
- Pour cold water over it and cook turpentine oil.
- Make arrangements to keep the mouth open. For this, a clean and smooth wood can be kept out of the mouth by taking the jelly out of the mouth.
- In the initial stage of the disease, moving the animal here and there is also beneficial.
- The animal can be fed by consulting the veterinarian by mixing turpentine oil in half to one teaspoon, six teaspoons of TC oil. After that, two swine gram magasulf and two hundred grams of salt should be mixed in a big bottle of water and laxatives.
- Animals like sawdust, charcoal, mango pickle, black salt, ginger, hing and mustard can be fed in consultation with the veterinarian.
- When the animal is healthy, a little water can be given, but no feed should be fed.
- Veterinarian services should be obtained immediately.
come. Milk fever
Milk cow buffalo or goat is vulnerable to this disease. This disease makes the most milch animal its prey. The symptoms of intermittent milk fever are usually seen within 24 hours of giving a baby.
- The animal becomes restless.
- The animal begins to tremble and falter. There is vibration in the meatpieces, due to which the animal is unable to stand.
- Palke tinkle – Tingling and eyes look like sleepless.
- Mouth is dry.
- Temperature remains normal or decreases.
- The animal sits on the ground with the help of the chest and the neck turns the body to one side.
- Most of the afflicted animals are seen at this stage.
- In the acute state, the animal becomes unconscious and collapses. Some animals also die within 24 hours of not being treated.
- Wipe the udder with a wet cloth and tie a clean cloth in it so that it does not get soil.
- Air filling in the udder is beneficial.
- Do not empty the udder completely for 2-3 days after recovering.
- Give the animal a quick and easily digested diet.
- Be sure to consult a vet.
I. Diarrhea and torsion
There are two reasons for this disease – sudden cold feeling and germs in the stomach. There is swelling in the intestine.
- The animal is thin and watery like diarrhea.
- Abdominal cramps occur.
- Blood falls with amoe.
- Easily digested foods like maad, boiled milk, anus of vine etc. should be fed.
- The feed should be given less water.
- Bacha – Bachhi should be allowed to drink less milk.
- Veterinary services should be obtained.
E. Jer stay inside
It is very important to get out of the loin within four or five hours after the animal is killed. Occasionally, the loin stays inside, which results in cattle suffering. Especially in summer, if the ger does not come out for six hours, the result can be quite bad. Due to which the cattle become sterile, it also maintains its share. Due to lochia, the uterus becomes swollen and the blood is also distorted.
- A sick cow or buffalo becomes restless.
- A portion of the membrane exits the vulva.
- Smelly water starts coming out, whose color is chocolate.
- Milk also bursts.
- The back should be washed with warm water. While carrying it, take care that the jerk does not touch.
- No force should be used to remove the loaf.
- The vet should be consulted.
A. Vaginal inflammation
This disease occurs a few days after the cow-buffalo was killed. This also causes great harm to milch cattle. Usually, this disease is caused due to some part of the lochia remaining inside.
- The temperature of cattle increases slightly.
- A deodorant-like substance keeps dropping from the vaginal tract. Fluid falls while sitting.
- Discomfort increases greatly.
- The milk decreases or does not start properly.
- A small amount of Dettol or Potash in warm water should be washed with the help of a rubber tube to wash the uterus.
- Veterinarian’s help should be sought.
Note: Due care is necessary to protect the animal from it, otherwise there will be a possibility of the animal becoming sterile.
Cattle that are constantly wet in water or tied in open spaces during winter season get pneumonia. Animals with excess hair can also get this disease if they are not wiped properly after carrying.
- Body temperature increases.
- Difficulty in breathing.
- Water flows through the nose.
- Appetite decreases.
- Yield decreases
- The animal becomes weak.
- Sick cattle should be kept in a clean and warm place.
- Putting turpentine oil in boiling water and benefiting from it is beneficial for sniffing animals.
- Camphor should be massaged in mustard oil in animal pan.
- It is necessary to arrange treatment in consultation with veterinary medicine.
It is common for animals to become injured. In order to graze the fence, the cattle are injured by cutting with wire, thorns or bush or any other type of injury. Due to the recent fall, the ox is also injured and the farming of the farmers is destroyed. Rubbing of sails on bull’s shoulders also causes swelling and wounding. Such common wounds and inflammation should be treated as follows.
- Wound wash should be mixed with red potash or phenyl in warm water.
- If there are insects in the wound, then the soaked bandage should be tied in turpentine oil.
- Mouth wounds, washed with alum water and applying boric acid solution are beneficial.
- One should apply 6 parts turpentine oil and a little camphor in coconut oil on the body wound.
Due to external and internal parasites, cattle also suffer from many types of diseases. To get complete information about these, read the printed booklets for free from Animal Husbandry Information and Dissemination Service, Off Polo Road, Patna – 1.
The following diseases particularly bother young calves.
a. Umbilical disease
- There is swelling around the navel, which touches the calf on touching the patient.
- Later, the swollen area becomes soft and pressing the place produces blood-mixed pus.
- The calf becomes lethargic.
- There is a mild fever.
- The swollen portion should be baked twice a day with warm water.
- After opening the mouth of the wound, it should be cleaned thoroughly and filled with antibiotic powder in it. This treatment should be continued till the wound is healed.
- Veterinary advice should be sought.
If the feces do not come out after the calves are born, constipation can occur.
- 50 grams of paraffin liquid (liquid) should be mixed with 200 grams of hot milk.
- Enema of soap solution is also beneficial.
I. White diarrhea
This disease can happen to calves within three weeks from birth. It is caused by small microbes. Calves living in dirty baths or weak calves become victims of this disease.
- The back of the calves is left with diarrhea.
- The calf becomes lethargic.
- Eating and drinking leaves.
- Body temperature decreases.
- Eyes sink towards other side.
- Treatment should be done in close veterinary consultation.
This disease is caused by a special type of germ called Coxidosis entering the body.
1. In the normal state of the disease, little – washed blood comes with diarrhea.
2. In the acute stage of the disease, the calf gives up drinking.
3. Paikhana is done with Kuthan in which a strand of blood comes.
4. Calves can become vulnerable to any other disease.
1. Call the vet as soon as possible and start treatment.
A. Night blindness
This disease usually occurs only on calves. After dusk, the calf suffering from the disease remains almost undisturbed till the sun rises. As a result, he also has difficulty in eating his feed. There is also a collision with other calves or animals.
1. They can be fed with cod liver oil milk for 20 days to 30 drops.
2. It is necessary to consult a veterinarian.