Liposuction It is a surgical technique applicable to body contouring. The aim is to aspirate part of the fatty tissue from some part of the body through a cannula. This cannula is inserted through a small incision in the previously planned area. After aspiration, the skin contracts and heals in the new volume situation, leaving the area less bulky.
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- 1 Description
- 2 Types of liposuction procedures
- 3 Uses for liposuction
- 1 Warnings
- 4 Risks
- 5 Complications
- 6 Sources
Liposuction is a popular type of cosmetic surgery , with which undesirable excess fat deposits are removed to improve body appearance and polish irregular or misshapen body contours. Sometimes this procedure is called body contouring. Liposuction can serve to shape the areas below the chin, neck , cheekbones, upper arms , breasts , abdomen , buttocks , hips , thighs , knees , calves, and ankles .
It is a complicated surgical procedure and may involve a painful recovery. Because liposuction can have serious or occasionally life-threatening complications, you should carefully think about the decision to have this surgery.
Types of procedures for liposuction
- Tumescent liposuction (liquid injection) is the most common type of liposuction and involves injecting a good amount of medicated solution into the areas to be operated on before removing the fat (sometimes it is necessary to inject a volume up to 3 times greater than the volume of grease to be removed). The liquid is a mixture of local anesthetic (lidocaine), a drug that constricts blood vessels(epinephrine), and an intravenous saline solution. The lidocaine in the mixture helps to numb the area during and after the operation and may be the only anesthesia needed for the procedure. The epinephrine in the solution helps to reduce the blood loss , the amount of bruising and the degree of swelling that accompany this . The IV solution helps remove fat more easily and is sucked out along with it. This type of liposuction usually takes longer than other types.
- The super-wet technique is similar to tumescent liposuction. The difference is that not as much fluid is used during surgery, as the injection contains an amount of fluid equal to the amount of fat to be removed. This technique takes less time, but often the patient needs to be sedated intravenously or given general anesthesia.
- Ultrasound-assisted liposuction (LAU) is fairly new and has been used in the United States. since 1996 . In this type of procedure, ultrasonic vibrations are used to liquefy the fat cells. After the cells are liquefied, they can be aspirated. This operation can be carried out in two different ways: external (on the skin surface with a special emitter) or internal (under the skin surface, using a small hot cannula). This technique can help eliminate fatdense, fibrous areas of the body, such as the upper back or enlarged breast tissue in men. This technique is often used in combination with the tumescent technique, in secondary or follow-up procedures, or for greater precision. This procedure generally takes longer than the super-wet technique.
For this surgery, a liposuction machine and special instruments are used. The surgical team prepares the area to be operated on first and administers either general or local anesthesia. Through a small incision in the skin, a sharp-tipped suction tube is inserted into the fat deposits and the area where the fat is to be removed is “swept away.” The dislodged fat is “sucked in” through a suction tube, while a large suction pump or syringe provides the suction action. Several sites on the skin may need to be punctured to treat large areas.
After the fat is removed, small drainage tubes can be inserted into the already empty areas to remove the blood and fluid that collects in the first few days after surgery. If you have lost enough blood or fluid during the operation, you may need an intravenous fluid replacement or a blood transfusion.
Uses for liposuction
- Aesthetic reasons, including fat folds at the waist(“tires or love handles”), fat accumulations, or an abnormal line on the chin.
- Improve sexual function, by reducing abnormal fat deposits located on the inner side of the thighs to allow easier access to the vagina.
- Body shaping for people upset with fat accumulations or irregularities that cannot be eliminated with diet and / or exercise.
Liposuction is generally not appropriate in the following cases:
- As a substitute for exercise and diet or as a cure for general obesity. However, it can be used to remove fat from isolated areas at different times.
- As a treatment for cellulite(the dimpled and uneven appearance of the skin on the hips, thighs and buttocks).
- In certain areas of the body, such as fat on the sides of the breasts, because these are common sites of cancer.
There are many alternatives to liposuction, such as abdominoplasty , removal of fatty tumors ( lipomas ), breast reduction surgery (reduction mammoplasty), or a combination of plastic surgery methods .
Before and after Liposuction
Certain pre-existing conditions should be monitored and controlled before liposuction, including:
- History of heart problems (heart attack).
- Allergic reactions to medications.
- Lung problems (trouble breathing, air pockets in the bloodstream).
- Allergies( antibiotics , asthma , surgical preparation)
- Smoking, alcohol or drug addiction
- Shock (usually when not enough fluid is replaced during surgery).
- Fluid overload (usually as a result of the procedure).
- Infections ( streptococci, staphylococci ).
- Bleeding, blood clots.
- Small globules of fat in the bloodstream that block blood flow to the tissues (fat embolism)
- Damage to nerves, skin, tissues or organs, or burns due to heat or the instruments used for liposuction.
- Uneven extraction of fat (asymmetry).
- Drug reactions or overdose for the lidocaine used in the procedure
- Scars(the surface of the skin may be uneven, asymmetrical or even “loose”, especially in the elderly)
Like all surgical procedures, liposuction has inherent risks that in most cases can be avoided with a meticulous surgical technique and careful pre-surgical analysis. The major complications are bleeding that can cause hypovolemic shock, venous thrombosis, and subsequent pulmonary embolism as well as fatty embolism , pulmonary edema, and heart attack. Locally, in the intervened areas, there are also deformities or irregularities of the contour, hypoesthesia of the skin located on the liposuctioned area, extensive ecchymoses that can partially resolve, leaving spots due to accumulation of hemosiderin , appearance ofseromas and infections ranging from mild to those corresponding to necrotizing fasciitis .