Liberalism is an ideology or ideology that embraces and upholds the freedom and equality of individual rights in various aspects of life, both in the economic, political, social , religious, or other matters that concern the lives of many people.
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Liberalism can also be interpreted as political understandings and traditions that are focused on freedom and equal rights for each individual in society. This means that a country and its government must respect and protect the freedom and rights of every citizen in various aspects of human life.
People who embrace this understanding are called leberalis. This ideology of liberalism generally appears in the democratic system because they both carry the concept of freedom. However, although this understanding carries individual freedom, freedom is not freedom without limits but there is order and must be held accountable. So there remains order in this ideology, in other words, free not free as freely as possible.
Liberalism is a type of understanding or ideology that promotes individual freedom or independence in all aspects, both in the political, economic, social, religious, and so on. Liberalism is an understanding that rejects any form of restrictions on an individual.
History of Liberalism
Liberalism emerged during the events of the French revolution that occurred in the 18th century. The events of the French revolution were due to the imbalance of the system and social inequality that occurred in a very striking society. At that time in France there were still classifications in society, where there were certain groups who got privileges that could not be obtained by other groups.
Comfort and privilege can only be felt by those from the royal family and religious leaders (upper class) while other people (both rich and poor) must obey the people from the privileged class (upper class).
Communities from outside the kingdom groups without rights demanded their freedom and freedom. It was at its peak, namely in 1789, that there was a revolution which later became the beginning of the formation of the liberal group or liberalism. Liberalism was then widely spread to various other countries such as in Europe which was later received and received support.
This movement to realize liberalism requires a short and long period of time, France itself was only truly able to embrace the liberalism system in 1870. Furthermore, after that Liberalism spread widely to other European states. The following are the factors that support the widespread imperialism in European countries including:
- Historical Trauma
There was a period called the ‘Dark Ages’ where European countries including France were dominated by Christianity in the Middle Ages. It was during this Christian rule that society experienced brutal and inhumane acts of brutality.
- Problems in the Bible Text (gospel)
Problems related to the bible text (gospel), there are two forms including the absence of the original bible document, and the available materials are various, different from one another.
- The Problem of Christian Theology
Another problem is a problem related to Christian theology. Christian theology in God’s eyes was 1 in 3, 3 in 1 and difficult to accept by the logic of society at that time. From that background, then the western society tends to be religious without any belief. Therefore they began to separate religion from the state and began to accept the concept of liberalism and tolerance towards religion.
The Characteristics of Liberalism Ideology
In an ideology, must have characteristics or characteristics. The following are the characteristics or characteristics of liberalism including the following:
- Every Individual Has the Same Opportunity
In the ideology of liberalism, one striking characteristic is that each individual has the same opportunity (Hold the Basic Equality of All Human) in all fields. However, that does not mean that everyone can give the same results. Equality of rights and opportunities is a must in this ideology. While the results will be obtained by each individual, based on many factors such as skills, hard work, resources, and others.
- Entitled to Get the Same Treatment
Almost the same as the characteristics and characteristics of the first, everyone must also get the same treatment. When getting the same opportunity, the resolution of every problem that is experienced by each individual will get the same treatment (Treat the Others Equally), both in the economic, political, social, and other fields.
- There are Laws and Applied Laws
In the ideology of liberalism, there must be laws applied. In a country there must be a law in it whose purpose is to protect and protect the rights of its people. In a country that carries the ideology of liberalism, it sets the highest legal standard that respects the rights of freedom and equal position of each individual before the law ( The Rule of Law ).
- Government is determined by agreement
In a country that regulates the concept of liberalism, the highest power is in the hands of the people so that the determination of the parties who will run the government must get the approval of the people. That is, the government must act in accordance with the wishes of the people and may not act of their own free will.
- Country Only Tool
The state in the system of liberalism is only considered as a tool used for the realization of larger goals.
- Do not Accept the Teachings of Dogmantism
The final characteristic is that the state of imperalism does not accept the teachings of dogmantism, which is the understanding that holds beliefs and opposes anything that is not in accordance with their beliefs.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Liberal Ideology
Every understanding and ideology, certainly has advantages and disadvantages of each, including this ideology of liberalism. Based on the understanding of liberalism, the following are the advantages and disadvantages of liberalism including:
The Advantages of Liberalism
- There is a desire and initiative itself from the community to develop into a better society.
- Every person or citizen gets the same rights and freedoms in the social community.
- Positive competition occurs in the community so that everyone wants to produce high quality products.
- Individual freedom in the opportunity to choose political parties without intervention by other parties.
- The press has the right and freedom to provide sharp criticism of the government with the limitations and ethics of the press in force.
- The emergence of a motive for seeking profit in the community so that economic activity becomes more effective and efficient.
Lack of Understanding of Liberalism
- The existence of exploitation of the workers carried out by parties who have resources so as to create social inequality.
- There is a monopoly on the small or poor community.
- Freedom of the press is often used by certain parties for certain purposes to achieve profits.
- The emergence of free competition so that equity of pendapan in society will be very difficult to achieve.
- The emergence of community groups who consider themselves higher than other community groups, or vice versa.
Development of Liberalism Ideology
Since the Reformation of the Church and the Renaissance which marked the end of the Middle Ages liberalism emerged. Church reform is the first step towards individual freedom. In addition, liberalism also has a great impact on Western societies.
There are two types of Liberalism, namely Classic and Modern Liberalism. Classical Liberalism emerged in the early 16th century. While Modern Liberalism was formed in the 20th century. Besides in Europe, it turns out that Liberalism also developed in Indonesia around 1870 and 1900.
At the beginning of the emergence of Liberalism, this was also the beginning of the emergence of industrialization in Indonesia. Indonesian residents’ land which was originally privately owned, at that time had to be leased for a certain period by foreign private capital owners because Indonesian entrepreneurs were unable to defeat foreign private entrepreneurs.
According to some experts, the influence of the liberal movement on Indonesia in general is the abolition of forced cultivation; foreign investment in Indonesia, small-scale handicraft business for imported goods, and others