FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF CHESS AND LEGAL

The laws of chess or chess rules are the set of rules that govern the practice of the game of chess. While the origins of chess are unclear, .

The Chess Board

The Board must contain Sixty- four squares in eight lines o{ eight squares each, alternately colored light and dark. The horizontal lines of squares are tei*med ”ranks/’ and the vertical lines files.” During play, the board must be so placed that each combatant has a white square in his right hand corner*

The Chess Men. The Chess Men must consist of sixteen for each player, superior, called Pieces and eight inferior, called Pavms/’ and they must, for distinction, be of a light colossi for one player, and of a dark colour for the other :  termed ”White,” and the other Black.” The eight Pieces for each party must consist of one King, one Queen, two Rooks (or Castles), two Bishops, and two Knights.

Position of Chess Men.

Before commencing an equal game the Chess Men must be arranged in the positions depicted on the follow dia- gram ; that is to say, the White King must occupy the fourth square from the player’s right hand comer, the Black King must occupy a corresponding square on the Black player’s left hand. The White Queen must occupy the fouitli square from the player’s left hand corner, and the Black Queen the fourth square from the player’s right hand corner. A Bishop must occupy a square next to each King and to each Queen, a Knight next to each Bishop, and a Rook must occupy each corner square next to a Knight. The effect will be  each King stands on a square of a colour different to his own colour, and each Queen on a square of her own colour ; each player will have one Bishop on a white square, and one on a black square; and the several pieces of each player will exactly face those of his opponent.

Moves OF The Chess Men.

All the Pieces may move backwards or forwards.The Pawns can only mo%’e forwards. The Kiiffo. The King can move to any square adjoining the one on which he stands, in every direction, vertically, horizon- tally, or dianjonally, provided he does not thereby place himself in check, and once in every game he has the privilege of a peculiar move, described under Castling, page 6.

The Queek. The Queen can move in the manner of the Hook and Bibkop cumbined. The Bishop. The Bishop can move along any number of continuously unoccupied squares, in a diagonal direction, always ranging on squares of the same colour as that on which he rigidly stood, and neither traversing ranks nor files. Power OF Capture When a player takes an adverse Man he removes it from the board, and places his own which took it on the square it occupied.

The only exception to this rule is, when one Pawn takes another in pawn^, as described below. Each Piece can take an adverse Man (always excepting the King who can never be captured) that occupies a square on to which he may be legally moved. The Pawns do not capture in the line of their movement, but take only on the next square forward diagonally, to the right or left. When a Pawn is played two squares at his first move, any adverse Pawn which has reached the htth square of his file may, on the move in reply, but not later, take such Pawn in the same manner it could have done if it had only been moved one square.

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