Laparoscopic sterilization . It is one of the most important applications in Veterinary Medicine, it is the sterilization of females. Through this technique, we achieve a marked decrease in postoperative pain, as well as a lower risk of complications such as infection or eventration due to dehiscence of the abdominal wall suture.
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- 1 When to apply laparoscopic sterilization
- 1 Materials and Methods
- 2 Examination before laparoscopic sterilization
- 3 Effects
- 1 Health
- 4 Post-surgical care
- 5 Consult the vet if:
- 6 Source
When to apply laparoscopic sterilization
The most frequent reason to sterilize a female is to prevent heat and unwanted litters. However, in addition to these two reasons, we can find other health advantages such as:
- Prevention of breast tumors : castration of females before the first heat reduces the incidence of breast tumors to less than 0.5%, cats with ovaries have a 7 times higher risk of breast cancer than those who undergo castration.
- Increased survival in bitches that have had breast cancer surgery .
- Prevention of pseudopregnancies (psychological pregnancy), congenital abnormalities, infections of the womb (pyometra), metritis , neoplasms (ovarian, uterine or vaginal), ovarian cysts , vaginal hyperplasia.
- Control of endocrine abnormalities (diabetes, epilepsy) and skin problems (eg, generalized demodicosis).
- 25% of unsterilized bitches develop an infection of the womb from 7 years of age.
Materials and methods
The necessary equipment consists of:
- Video processor, with light source, camera and monitor .
- CO2 insufflator to practice pneumoperitoneum.
- Rigid optics. The most commonly used is the 5 mm diameter. There are also 10 mm and thinner, 1.9 and 1.7 mm, for exotics and natural cavities. The viewing angle of the optics is 0 ° and 30 °.
- Insertion equipment: with the Verres needle for pneumoperitoneum and different trocars to insert the instruments.
- Cutting and coagulation equipment: monopolar electric scalpel for cutting and bipolar for hemostasis by coagulation. High frequency equipment (Ligasure) and adapted for veterinary medicine (Vetseal), with sterilizable and reusable instruments and with the possibility of simultaneous cutting are also used for vascular sealing.
- Instruments: scissors , forceps and retraction hooks, coagulation forceps, hemostatic clips, ligatures, endoloop, endoguide.
Examination before laparoscopic sterilization
Appropriate anesthetic protocol similar to open surgery is administered. It empty the bladder of urine catheterized not to interfere in the surgical field. After shaving, the animal is positioned in the supine position. Disinfection and application of surgical fields.
A 5 mm skin incision is made approximately 2 cm from the navel , cranially. The Verres needle is inserted by pulling on the abdominal wall to avoid injuring internal organs (spleen, intestine). The pneumoperitoneum is created and the trocar is introduced and, through it, the optic, from which we are guided to introduce two other trocars, lateral to the fourth breast, through which the traction and coagulation forceps are introduced.
One of the owners’ concerns regarding sterilization is the change in behavior of their animal. It has been seen that sterilization only modifies those behaviors that are linked to heat, such as the marking of the territory, the meows of cats and cats, aggressiveness linked to heat, the tendency to run away in search of a partner …
It has been fully demonstrated that other non-sexual behaviors, such as gambling habits and relationships with people, do not change at all with sterilization.
Traditionally, the recommended age for canine and feline sterilization was around 6 months, regardless of whether or not they had had the first heat. Today it is known that the advantages of sterilization are greater when performed before the first heat and that, contrary to what was thought, no clinical problem associated with prepubertal sterilization (before puberty) was seen.
Until recently, the removal of the ovaries and the womb has been carried out (ovariohysterectomy). It is the usual treatment for many diseases: pyometra, uterine torsion, prolapse of the uterus, and uterine rupture. However, the current trend is to perform only the removal of the ovaries (ovariectomy), since according to the latest research, there are no definitive advantages of ovariohysterectomy over ovariectomy. Ovariectomy (removal of the ovaries) is a less aggressive surgery and is just as effective in preventing jealousy and diseases such as breast tumors , pyometra. Consult with your vet. It is essential to ensure that hemostasis has been carried out correctly, and for this, different methods can be used, from traditional ligation to the most modern vessel sealing systems. Few male dogs are sterilized if it is not for clinical reasons, tumors, aggressiveness or handling coexistence with whole females, priapism, escapists. In other countries it is a routine practice implanted in the culture and required by pet owners.
But here many owners see it as an aggression and an unnecessary handicap towards their pet .
These patients do not require post-surgical hospitalization. Once recovered from anesthesia, they can be discharged, and analgesia is only required for 24 hours. They do not require antibiotherapy. Wound care is almost unnecessary. It is ideal for this alternative animals ] of garden , little watched or difficult to manage.
Consult the vet if:
- You have a fever .
- You have swelling that does not go away or continues to get worse.
- You have trouble urinating.