Kingdom Plantae

The plantae kingdom is represented by vegetables. The cells of these organisms have some organelles specific to the group, such as the presence of a cell wall. Vegetables can be grouped into two major groups: cryptogams (algae, bryophytes and pteridophytes) and phanerogams (gymnosperms and angiosperms).

The kingdom of plants, or vegetables, can also be called Metaphyta, encompassing all diversity of mosses, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc. The kingdom in question is characterized by autotrophic, chlorophilated organisms that have asexual or sexual reproduction.

In some more recent systems, green and red algae have been considered plants, because, in addition to molecular similarities, they, together with terrestrial plants, are the only ones that have chloroplasts derived from primary endosymbiosis.

Are so Arqueplastidas calls ( arque = primitive). There is strong evidence that terrestrial plants have emerged from an ancient group of green algae , as there are several characteristics that bring them together, such as the presence of a cell wall composed mainly of cellulose, the existence of chlorophylls a and b in chloroplasts and the starch reserve .

Plants can be classified according to several aspects, such as the presence or absence of flowers (Photo: depositphotos)

In the evolutionary passage from green algae to terrestrial plants, some characteristics emerged that were maintained by natural selection , as they proved to be very adaptive to life in the terrestrial environment, enabling the expansion of plants in that environment.

How are the kingdom plant cells?

The cells of this kingdom have many organelles like those of animal cells, however, there are some exclusive to the group. They present chloroplast (responsible for photosynthesis ), vacuoles and cell wall.


Plants can be classified according to several aspects, the first of which is related to the presence or absence of flowers. Those that have flowers and a visible reproductive structure are called phanerogams , whereas those in which the reproductive structure is not visible and does not have flowers or seeds we call cryptogams .

We can also classify them according to the presence or absence of the conducting vessels of water and mineral salts and of organic matter, or elaborated sap, as vascular and avascular.

See also: Fungi Kingdom


Reproduction can be sexual or asexual . The asexual type plants generate new individuals from spores, leaves, small branches , etc. In sexuality, female and male gametes are formed. The female sexual organ is called gynecium and the male is androceu . Through the action of the wind, pollination of animals, aid of water, the pollen grain is transported to the ovary of the plant and, thus, the male sex cell joins the egg. Fertilization takes place, the egg will originate the fruit and the ovary, in the future seeds.

It is very important for reproduction to happen the dispersion of fruits and seeds of plants. Dispersion can occur by wind (anemochory), by animals (zoochory) or by water (hydrocory).

Anemochorous species : present light seeds or fruits, with winged hairs or expansions, facilitating their transport by wind.

The zoocora species: the fruits are attractive, serving as food for the animals and the seeds are eliminated in the feces in other places; or the fruits are dry, but they have formations that bind them to the body of animals, allowing them to be taken over great distances, as in the case of burrs and pickles.

Hydrocoral species: produce fruits or seeds that retain air. In this way, they can be transported floating in the water, as occurs with the coconut-of-the-bay, which has fibrous mesocarp, full of air.

What are the groups of the vegetable kingdom?

According to the classifications we saw above, plants can be divided into Cryptogams (bryophytes and pteridophytes) and Phanerogams (gymnosperms and angiosperms).

Of all the kingdoms that exist, this is considered the most important (Photo: depositphotos)

Cryptogamae : The word basically means “hidden or little evident reproductive structure”, where cryptography means hidden and gamma , gamete. Eg: algae, mosses ( bryophytes ) and ferns (pteridophytes). The bryophytes are terrestrial with tissues, but without xylem and phloem. The ferns have xylem and phloem (tissue specialized in the transport of water and minerals). Because they have xylem and phloem, pteridophytes and all phanerogams are called vascular or tracheophyte plants; bryophytes, which lack these tissues, are called atraqueophytes.

Phanerogams : This word means “reproductive structure very visible”, where fanero means visible and gamma , as we have seen, means gamete. Ex: pine from Pará (gymnosperms) and mango tree (angiosperms). All phanerogams develop seeds and are therefore also called spermatophytes (from the Greek: sperma = seed). Gymnosperm : Ginno means “discovery” and sperma means “seed”. So in this case it is the same as saying that a plant has the seed uncovered or still visible / bare. Angiosperm : Angionmeans “vessel”, and this vessel to which the word refers in this context is the fruit itself. Sperma means “seed”. Logo angiosperm means a “plant that has the seed stored inside”.

See also: Protista Kingdom

Reino plantae: Exercises

1- What is the only group of vegetables that do not have conductive sap vessels? A: Bryophytes.
2- Give examples of representatives of the pteridophytes: Ferns and ferns.
3- What is the relationship between insects and birds in plant reproduction? They are important because they act as pollinators. When they feed on the nectar, they end up carrying the pollen grain and thus dispersing it to other plants, with fertilization occurring.


We can cite as characteristics for the representatives of this kingdom the fact that they are multicellular and eukaryotic beings. They are autotrophs, capable of producing their own food through processes such as photosynthesis , although they still need essential nutrients present in the soil, water and sunlight. However, some plants are unable to produce food for themselves and it is this type of vegetable that we call the parasite, because it aggregates with other plants to suck its nutrients so that they can survive.


The Plantae Kingdom or simply the Vegetal Kingdom, as the name implies, is basically composed of plants in their most diverse species. This is by far considered the most important realm, because it was plants that started life on Earth millions of years ago.

Plants are considered the first link in the food chain, sustaining all life on Earth until today, as they are the base of the food chain. We must not forget that in an increasingly industrialized world dominated by capitalism, plants are of vital importance for the balance of the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in our atmosphere.

by Abdullah Sam
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