Providing water through artificial means to irrigate the trees at the appropriate time and to remove water from the root of the tree due to rainfall or other means is urgent. Finally, water management refers to both irrigation and drainage. Water management is very important for fruit trees. Another name for water is the word life as it applies to all living things. Lack of water disrupts the growth and yield of trees, and can even cause death. Therefore, it is important to provide irrigation in the dry season. Some fruits, such as papaya, banana, watermelon, pineapple, jackfruit, etc. are extremely sensitive to waterlogging, and may even die if waterlogging is prolonged. It is important to arrange drainage for these flakes. When to irrigate the crop depends on the growth of the tree, the weather and the soil conditions.
Irrigation methods ( Methods of irrigation )
1) Overhead irrigation or rain (Overhead / Sprinkler irrigation )
system of natural rain down like a tree or on the land or water is given in. This method is very useful for high land. Any garden can be irrigated in this way, but is generally more effective for smaller plants. One of the major disadvantages of this method is that irrigation water is not distributed when the velocity of the air is high. Rain irrigation is again two types namely: (a) rotating nozzle system and (b) perforated nozzle system. In the first method, a rotating nozzle is placed on the head of the irrigation tube and after a certain period of time the water begins to irrigate. This method is best for pineapple. In the perforated nozzle system, continuous rain falls on the trees like water from above.
Ii) surface irrigation ( Surface irrigation )
In this way, water is flowing over the land. This method is more popular in our country because it is relatively easy and cheap. However, irrigation water is not distributed in this way. It is difficult to irrigate this method in high and low lands, it also leads to excessive waste of water. It has been found that in this method only 20% of the irrigated water can be used by the plants and the remaining 5% is wasted. There can be different types of irrigation on the surface. For example:
a) flood system ( on Flood Methods )
generally flat land is used in the process. Again, many of these methods, such as:
1) open the flood ( on Flood Irrigation )
at the side of the land and the water entered the land were flooded out the excess water. Irrigation is done in such places where the source of water is adequate and readily available.
2) border flooding (Irrigation-Border )
This approach is similar to the flood-free land However, in parallel to the Isle of high water is run down. The land between the two isles is called the “Border Strip”. The strip is 3-5 meters wide and 3-5 meters long. This method is more applicable to densely planted crops.
3) Controlled flooding ( Control Irrigation )
In the case of the Isle of the land is divided into several volumes. The block is then flooded according to the slope.
4) Basin flood ( in Basin Irrigation )
This method is widely used in all fruit trees that can withstand water and are planted at greater distances. In this method, a round / rectangular sink is created at the base of each tree. The basin is cut between the two rows of trees and the basin is connected to the canal by a small canal. This method is very useful for mango. This method increases the efficiency of irrigation as the entire field is not wetted.
5) ring flood ( Ring Irrigation )
at noon in a tree that provides shade across the border chika the irrigation channel is provided. This method is generally used more often in fruit trees.
B) drain system
This method is most suitable for fruit trees that cannot tolerate water standing at the base. Planting trees in a row increases the effectiveness of this method. If the distance between the rows and the rows from tree to tree is not too high, then creating deep or shallow drains between the two rows can easily reach the root of the tree if water is provided to it.
C) Drip or point irrigation method
This method is used to irrigate the plant at the base of the tree with a perforated tube so that there is no water waste. This method is applicable in the case where water is available for irrigation.
It is shown below which irrigation system is suitable for any fruit tree.
Irrigation method suitable for some fruit trees
|Irrigation method||Name of the fruit tree|
|Basin||Jackfruit, mango, jam, guava, litchi and most of the tree fruits.|
|Drain||Pineapple, Banana, Papaya, Watermelon, Footy, Strawberry.|
|Free flooding||Jackfruit, mango, jam, guava, litchi, banana, cardamom lemon.|
|Drip or irrigate the point||All kinds of fruits.|
|Rain or sprinklers||Strawberries, pineapple, paper and cardamom lemons.|