In the old irrigation system, two to three times more water is applied to the land than the actual demand. Which is a waste of water resources. Although irrigation water is becoming increasingly scarce, the main crop of this country is an irrigated farming system of paddy production. The environment is slowly deteriorating. Again, due to uncontrollable and uneven lifting, overland water shortages are causing environmental problems. Nevertheless, the surface water quality is also deteriorating. On the one hand, as the cost of production is increasing, the changing climate, due to global climate change, has also shown various effects of drought, rainfall-deficiency and falling ground water levels in agriculture.
It is very important to develop irrigation and water management technology for proper assessment of water demand in the crops, determining the proper method of transporting and distributing irrigation water, and for improving the social, non-economic and environmental conditions of irrigation. His department has been pursuing education and research mainly on the problems that can be overcome from these problems in the agricultural country. Irrigation is essential for year-round crop production. Although surface water is more suitable for irrigation than groundwater, about 7% of the country’s irrigation is dependent on irrigation water due to non-availability of surface water during the dry season. Therefore, a large amount of groundwater is being pumped through deep and shallow tube-wells every year for irrigation operations.
It is said that conventional irrigation management requires about 3,000 liters of irrigation water per kg of paddy production in Bangladesh. Due to excessive groundwater withdrawal, the ground water level is constantly going down. As a result the balance of the environment is increasing as the equilibrium of the environment increases. The soil is losing its quality due to the organic matter and nutrients of the soil.
To address all these problems, a comprehensive water management is needed. Apart from this, the crops that require less water should be taken into account. In Barendra, grazing areas and areas where sandy soil is present, initiatives can be taken to discourage paddy cultivation by cultivating wheat, pulse crops and vegetables. In addition, recognizing the need to conserve irrigation water, it is necessary to have a more specific role for the policy makers in providing special guidance for the production of area-based crops.