Industrial Hygiene ( Industrial, Series Hygiene) is a science and art involved in monitoring and improving the environment in the workplace. This is to create safety for the operators by covering 3 steps: awareness, assessment and control of environmental risk factors. Performance characteristics Or any other that may affect the health of the worker Causing operator discomfort or reduced work efficiency As well as may affect the people in the surrounding area
Scope of industrial hygiene work
- RecognitionIt is to search for or identify hazards from environmental factors in work that may threaten the health of the operator. And it also affects the efficiency of the operator’s work. Which an industrial hygienist will be the operator in this regard By the industrial hygienist himself Must be a person with knowledge and understanding of various production processes in factories or establishments They will also need to study the chemicals that are used and manufactured. The hazard identification data may be gathered through factory surveys, observations or inquiries of operators and management during the survey. Including studying from documents related to the production process This is usually in manuals or academic texts on thematic production. In particular, a complete list of the chemicals and products used should be provided for reference during the assessment of the environmental problem in the workplace. At this stage we will know the sources of pollution in the workplace. The toxicity of raw materials and products used in the production process; The production processes used in each production step Including the control measures in use
In this step can be done by reviewing the report (Record review) such as an accident report. Occupational injuries and illness This allows it to determine where a potentially hazardous environment exists in the production process. And from the walk through survey, one of the activities in the process of finding health threats and risk assessment. By going into the workplace to see what workers or people involved do and how to do it. What is the working environment? By using all 5 senses with a camera And a device that helps in taking notes Or there may be a simple tool that can read directly. To assess the initial problem condition The information gained from this process will be used in further planning of the detailed sampling.
- Evaluation ( Evaluation)when data is gathered from the process of recognizing the hazards of the working environment. Based on education or preliminary surveys in the workplace To find or identify hazards from environmental factors in work that may threaten the health of workers. Came to the process of assessing the environmental hazards in the work to assess the level of problems encountered At this stage, the operator should have a good understanding of the factory production process. In order to have accurate knowledge of the source and the root of the problem. Including education and understanding of important issues To use as a guide for consideration such as legal requirements Various standard values Number of workers The duration of exposure to the risk factors of the operator, etc.
Then, tools and equipment for assessing environmental hazards in the work are then considered. Typically, there are three types of assessment tools used to determine occupational hazards: Direct Reading Instrument, Continuous Monitoring Devices, and Sampling for Submission. Analyzed in the laboratory (Sample Collection Devices) by considering the selection of tools and equipment to assess the hazards of the working environment. Consideration should be given to the type of analysis and the required data. Including how to use Which must be easy, convenient, highly efficient And reliable in various conditions
Before the measurement of a work environment hazard assessment apparatus and equipment must be calibrated. (Calibration) tools first, every time. In order for the measurement and analysis results to be accurate, which results in information pointing to the true concentration of exposed risk factors, such as in the case of sampling, the collected air flow rate and the time taken must be known. store Which must be adjusted for accuracy The accuracy of the instrumentation or sampling By always using a standard air flow meter (Flow – rate Meter) before and after field use. Direct-reading instruments and gas detector tubes must be calibrated against the concentration of the prepared substances, etc.
For some risk factors, results cannot be analyzed immediately. The collected samples need to be sent for analysis to a laboratory. Therefore, the measurement and sampling operator must ensure that the sample is collected correctly and that the sample volume is sufficient. And able to maintain the condition of the collected sample properly before sending it to the analyst. So that the analysis results are as accurate as possible
After knowing the value of risk factors in the work environment The next step is to compare the analyzed values with the statutory standard values to assess whether the risk factors in the working environment exceed the standard values. Is it dangerous to the health of workers? The information of the person must be taken into account such as gender, age, weight, age of employment, length of work The use of personal protective equipment (PPE), etc., and may be compared with the results of previous analyzes to assess the control and prevention system that is effective or not to lead to correction and improvement to be very effective. Up next
- Control ( Control)If the measurement and analysis results obtained from the assessment process exceed the standard or are high, there is a risk of harm to the operator. Measures must be taken to reduce or eliminate those hazards. By preparing an industrial hygiene program and developing sub-projects to revise the working environment that exceeds the standard risk factors, such as the hearing conservation program. Providing personal protective equipment for employees to wear while operating. Training to educate operators about occupational hazards. Or may provide signs or symbols to communicate hazards to the operator, etc.
There are several ways to control environmental hazards in work. As a result, choosing the right method will reduce the likelihood of a dangerous problem that can threaten the health and safety of workers. In general, the main measure used to control occupational environmental hazards is control at the source. Control at the passageway And control at the operator as follows
(1) Source Controls are to control the spread of toxic substances or threats to the worker health. To the working environment
- Changes in manufacturing processes or work processes, such as in plating instead of painting to reduce diffusion of chemicals in the atmosphere. Using a wet process to reduce dust build-up in the air