The Hysterectomy . It is the removal of the uterus , or womb. (From the Greek “hystera” = uterus and “ektone” = incision).

It may also involve removal of the fallopian tubes , ovaries, and cervix.


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  • 1 Concept
  • 2 First hysterectomies
  • 3 Types of hysterectomies
  • 4 Most Common Reasons to Perform a Hysterectomy
  • 5 External links
  • 6 See Also
  • 7 Sources


Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus, which makes pregnancy impossible. This surgery can be done for a variety of reasons, including chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, uterine fibroids, and cancer. It can be done through an abdominal or vaginal incision.

Early hysterectomies

The hysterectomy or removal of the uterus has been carried out for many centuries. However, modern Medicine records for the first time such successful surgery in 1813 .

Although the first hysterectomies were vaginal (such as those performed by the German surgeon Langenbeck or by John Collins Warren of Harvard University ), throughout the 19th century , these developed along with abdominal hysterectomies.

The first of these dates from 1844 , practiced by Charles Clay, in England .
The first rigorous description of modern vaginal hysterectomy was written by Fenger in 1881 . Advances in abdominal hysterectomy were synthesized in the classic description of Edward H. Richardson, who in 1929 wrote a report with such precision that it remains highly valid in the field, almost a century later.

Types of hysterectomies

  • Complete or total hysterectomy removes the cervix as well as the uterus. This is the most common type of hysterectomy.
  • Partial or subtotal hysterectomy (also called supracervical hysterectomy) removes the upper part of the uterusand leaves the cervix in place.
  • In a radical hysterectomy, the uterus, cervix, upper part of the vagina, and its supporting tissues are removed. This procedure is done in some cases of cancer.

Most common reasons to perform a hysterectomy

  • Uterine fibroids. The fibroidsare tumors (not cancerous) benign common that grow in the muscle of the uterus. The greatest number of hysterectomies is performed due to the appearance of fibroids. Fibroids often cause no symptoms and require no treatment, and usually shrink after menopause. But sometimes they cause heavy bleeding or pain.
  • This is another benign condition that affects the uterus. Endometriosis is the second main reason for performing hysterectomies. It is more common in women over thirty and under fifty years of age, especially in women who have never had a pregnancy. Endometriosis occurs when endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus) begins to grow outside of the uterus and on adjacent organs. This condition can cause painful menstrual periods, abnormal vaginal bleeding, and sometimes loss of fertility . Endometriosis is usually not a problem for women who have already gone through menopause.
  • Prolapse of the uterus. This is a benign condition in which the uterus moves from its normal place to the vagina. Prolapse of the uterus is caused by the weakening and widening of the pelvic ligaments and tissues. Other organs such as the bladder can also be affected. Childbirth, obesityand loss of estrogen after menopause can contribute to the onset of this problem. Prolapse of the uterus accounts for about 16 percent of hysterectomies performed.


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