Since we have begun to know a type of energy that surrounds us, we will continue with another type of energy, hydraulic energy .
We call hydraulic energy, also known as hydropower, to the energy that is obtained thanks to the water currents or waterfalls that are produced by rivers in certain sections, or even thanks to the current produced by the tides. Hydraulic energy is produced thanks to the use of the kinetic and potential energy generated by the sources mentioned above.
The importance of this energy source lies in that it is a type of renewable energy, therefore the damage it produces to the environment is minimal.
METHODS OF OBTAINING
In order to generate hydraulic energy, the first idea of what we know today as a hydroelectric plant was created centuries ago. This first idea was based on small farms in which the current of the river made a blade rotor move, thus generating an applied movement. A clear example of this type of farms are rural water mills .
Today, the most significant form of obtaining hydroelectric energy is from hydroelectric plantsof dams, through which electrical energy is obtained. These power plants take advantage of the gravitational potential energy that the water mass of a river possesses where a drop occurs, in such a way that the water in its fall passes through a hydraulic turbine. From this turbine the energy is transmitted to a generator in which the transformation from hydraulic energy to electrical energy takes place.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
However, like all types of energy, it has both its advantages and disadvantages. Below we will see some of them:
-Among the advantages of hydraulic energy we highlight:
1. It is renewable and inexhaustible energy. Therefore we can say that it is an ecological energy.
2. It is an inexhaustible source of energy.
3. The storage of water to produce hydraulic energy also allows it to be used for recreational activities or irrigation systems.
In addition, thanks to the dams, we can control the flow of the river and prevent flooding, especially when there is heavy rain.
4. They do not directly produce carbon dioxide, since they do not burn fuel.
5. Economically, hydraulic energy allows savings in fuel costs.
-Some of the drawbacks are:
1. The construction of the reservoirs occupies large areas of land, which can mean loss of fertile land.
2. The existence of reservoirs in certain places has come to produce floods (although this fact is already regulated).
3. It destroys ecosystems, there may be species that have to migrate at a certain time to reproduce or perhaps due to other circumstances.
In addition, the ecosystem is also affected by many other reasons, since the water after passing through the turbines does not have the same sediments as before passing through them.