How to Make Bibliography

How to make a correct bibliography must be known before you complete a research report in the form of a scientific paper. Bibliography contains a reading list that becomes a reference or reference for writing your scientific work.

A trivial problem that often leads writers to make revisions is about how to write it down correctly. For that, we will discuss how to make a bibliography according to the agreed guidelines in social science.

We differentiate between bibliography or references in the form of books, book chapters, journal articles, research reports. How to make a bibliography written here refers to the popular bibliography citation model from the American Sociological Association (ASA Style)

Book (one author)

Author (last name, first name). Publication Year. Title (italics). Publisher City: Publisher Name.


Barker, Chris. 2009. Cultural Studies. Yogyakarta: Discourse Creation.

Book (two authors)

First Author (last name, first name) and Second Author (first name, last name). Publication Year. Title (italics). Publisher City: Publisher Name.


Rahmat, Andi, and Mukhammad Najib. 2001. Resistance Movement of the Campus Mosque . Surakarta: Purimedia.

Book Chapter

Author of the Book Chapter (last name, first name). Publication Year. Title of Book Chapter (using double quotation marks). In Book Title (italics). Author. Book Chapter Pages. Publisher City: Publisher Name


Irvine, Judith T., and Susan Gal. 2000. “Language Ideology and Linguistic Differentiation”. in Regimes of Language: Ideologies, Polities, and Identities . Paul V. Kroskrity, ed. Pp. 35-83. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.

Journal Articles

Author (last name, first name). Publication Year. Journal Article Title (using double quotation marks). Publisher’s Journal Name (italics) edition (volume): Pages.


Miller, Laura. 2004. “Those Naughty Teenage Girls: Japanese Kogals, Slang, and Media Assessments.” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 14 (2): 225-247.

Scientific reports / documents

Institution that makes reports. Publication Year. Report Title (italicized), City of Publication: Report Publisher


Walhi East Java. 2008. Heavy Metals and PAH in Water and Mud Lapindo (Walhi East Java Preliminary Research 2007-2008) , Sidoarjo: Walhi East Java.

Bibliography Example


The example above shows several techniques for writing different bibliography based on the reference source.

How to make a bibliography from books with one author is different from books from two authors. The report structure is also different from journals. The authors of the bibliography need to know this difference.

The problem of writing a bibliography is a technical one. There are actually many models that can be referenced. ASA Style is just one of the popular ones. You can also use another model if it matches the guidelines desired by the publisher or institution that will publish your paper.

Writing a bibliography has nothing to do with what is true. Various options are available, which one is according to the writing guide at your institution. One thing you should know is about consistency. If you are using ASA Style, all of your bibliography should be written using ASA Style.

Sample Bibliography From the Internet

At this point, we have understood that the correct way to write a bibliography is according to the guidelines and you are consistent in using it.

Writing a bibliography is sometimes time consuming, especially when written manually. Especially if the reference source used is different. But if you are not careful to write according to the provisions, you can be asked for revisions.

There is no other way except to understand how to make a correct bibliography.


by Abdullah Sam
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