History of the hairdressing salon . Hair was seen for thousands of years as a powerful magical or ceremonial element, and still some of the so-called primitive cultures, the basis of most studies on social behavior in prehistory, consider that the soul of each person is in her hair.
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- 1 History
- 2 Definition of hairdressing
- 3 Hair
- 4 Structure and chemical composition
- 1 The chemical composition of the hair is as follows
- 5 Source
The magical-religious character of the hair meant that from ancient times its care had great importance in many societies. The highly elaborate Egyptian culture was among the first to regard it as a fundamental element of physical beauty and already treated it with aesthetic functions, in addition to social and religious uses. Wigs and dyes are inventions belonging to the culture of the pyramids, and it is to them that henna’s utility in hair coloring is due, a plant still used to obtain reddish and mahogany tones.
The Greeks made the cult of beauty one of the pillars of their culture. The hairstyles that triumphed in her day were extremely elaborate and full of detail. Unlike the Egyptians, the Greeks loved the movement expressed through multiple curls and waves. Thanks to funerary statues and monuments, details of short locks surrounding the forehead, and long manes collected by ribbons, cords, hairnets and other decorative elements have been observed. Also for men curly hair was considered an exponent of beauty.
In [Greece], as in Egypt , slaves were in charge of keeping their masters’ hair as beautiful as possible. But Greece brought a new element: beauty salons, where the most select heads were groomed and groomed. Another of the innovations of the time came from the hand of Alexander the Great, who, as a result of his conquests in the East, brought all kinds of magic recipes to dye and shape the hairstyle, formulas of cosmetics that began, at that time, to see the light.
In Cuba, the hairdressing salon has its antecedents in 1552 , when, according to the Chapter Acts, Juan Gómez, a prominent Spanish barber and surgeon, received on August 26 , 1552 the license to uniquely exercise his double trade in the town of San Cristóbal de La Habana.
The initiative to institute December 27 as Barber and Hairdresser Day in Cuba, is due to the poet and senator Pastor del Río, who in 1946 wanted to recognize in this way the work of Juan Evangelista \ ‘dés Veitía (1836-1918) , outstanding barber, poet, journalist and revolutionary, born on that day. The legacy of this Havana figaro has served as an inspiration for the Artecorte Project, and its purpose is to rescue and spread the history of barbering and hairdressing in Cuba.
Hairdresser is the establishment that people attend to cut or style their hair. In this place you can carry out different hair treatments that, for the most part, have to do with beautifying hair and restoring its strength. There are different types of hairdressing salons, although some receive all types of clients, many others specialize in haircuts for women, men or children. The name of hairdresser is synonymous with beauty salon.
An institution like this is characterized by having a line of seats facing a mirror, in which the hairdresser observes the entirety of the client’s head. The seats are usually comfortable and reclining, with adjustable height to suit different customers. At the same time, there is a table between the mirror and the client where the hairdresser places all the items and products that he will use. Among the most used tools are scissors, combs, dryers, tweezers and different hooks that are used to collect hair. Both lighting and cleaning are extremely important aspects of good work in the hairdressing salon.
Different types of services can be performed in these centers. Although hair cutting is the most required job, hairstyles, application of extensions or wigs, dyes, hair styling, that is, preparing it for styling are also carried out: assembly of rolls, use of curling irons, irons and numerous treatments that they have to do with restoring hair to its natural firmness and shine. To carry out such tasks, hairdressers have various products that are sold in the trade network.
Today the hairdressers are of great importance and even establishments offering hairdressing services for animals have been developed, in which the majority of clients request washing and haircuts, although special work can also be carried out for some breeds of dogs.
The hair is a thin filament attached to the scalp of the human body, it does not contain nerves: it is a modification of the skin whose constitution is cornea like nails. People with brown or black hair have about 100,000 hair follicles ; those with blond hair, some more, and redheads, some less. Hair color is mainly determined by melanin, secreted by specific cells located in the melanocyte bulb.
Different hair colors are inherited and vary depending on the amount and distribution of melanin (black-brown, yellow-red), the production of it decreases with age and the hair turns gray.
The melanin contained in the hair has two different forms:
- Granular form: responsible for black coloration and its degradation to red.
- Diffuse form: responsible for the more or less intense reddish color to very light or yellowish tones.
In white or gray hair there is a lack or absence of pigments.
Structure and chemical composition
Two parts can be seen in the hair:
- a) The root: is the part of the hair that is inside the skin.
It is made up of living cells that in the deepest part make up the hair bulb, the hair generating part, named for its onion shape. The matrix cells of the bulb settle on a dermal papilla from whose capillaries receive food, since this epidermal elevation is richly vascularized and innervated. In the bulb are also the m & anocytes, which synthesize the pigments that give color to the hair. The hair root is surrounded by two epidermal sheaths, one internal and one external, that form the follicle walls.
- b) The stem: is the visible part of the hair formed by keratinized dead cells. In a cross section of the hair shaft, three layers can be distinguished, which, from the inside out, are:
- The medulla: column formed by large, single cells is present in thick hairs. It originates from the center of the papilla and narrows as it ascends.
- The cortex or cortex: it is the intermediate zone, it surrounds the medulla. Its cells are elongated with the shape of fibers.
- The cuticle: it is the layer that surrounds the cortex and is formed by cells in the form of scales arranged as tiles in the direction of the tip of the hair.
The chemical composition of the hair is as follows
- 28% protein, mostly keratin, found mostly in cortical cells.
- 2% lipids, which are of little importance. After puberty, lipids have been shown to increase in both sexes, and decrease with age, especially in women.
- 70% water and mineral salts in addition to urea, amino acids, etc.