HISTORY CONCEPT

The History is the study or science of facts or phenomena (of all kinds and of all duration) transcendent life of humanity, in all its connections , both synchronous (with facts from the same period) and diachronic ( with its antecedents and causes, and with its consequences).
Diachronic means from different times: before or after.
Synchronous means that it is from the same time, simultaneous.

Historical phenomena according to their duration :

  • short-lived: events. They are those that take place in a few hours or days. (The crack of 29)
  • medium duration: short-term. They develop in a few years. (The First International)
  • long-lasting: structural. They develop in centuries. (Romanization, Reconquest ).

Deepening and broadening the definition of history

The story is the science that studies the synchronic and diachronic interconnection of important phenomena, projective, the life of humanity that takes time; the phenomena, therefore, that are of sufficient importance to be projected in the following epochs, in the future through the present; phenomena of all kinds -economic, social, political, cultural, artistic, religious- and of all duration -long, medium or short- .
They are processes, but there is no problem in calling them facts despite the positivist misunderstanding. The problem with positivism is not that it enhances the facts too much, but that it does not want to consider all the facts, but only those that are quantifiable, measurable and, above all, compatible with its belief in what is scientific; and discards those that can value and make sense, precisely the most vital.

There are transcendent facts and facts that are exhausted in their pure passing, as Millán Puelles says. The former, by influencing the course of subsequent human events and giving it an orientation, enter history; the others, as closed and sterile, remain outside it. That to which it corresponds to be historical is current insofar as it is considered formally, not materially; the historical is defined solely by its permanence. In this sense, all history is contemporary history. Each historical situation presents a synchronous interconnection of elements of all kinds, but also has, according to the same author, a double previous and subsequent context, a projective direction, as well as a retrospective dimension. What makes a phenomenon historical is the virtuality through which it transcends. Therefore, is to know the virtuality of phenomena. Hence the formally connective character of all historical knowledge. Establishing the connection is historical knowledge. The rest is only indirectly, materially, if it is only preparing the materials. The form of historical knowledge is the dynamic and connective synthesis of the continuity of phenomena or processes. Analyzing isolated historical objects is not a historical task. But he does insert that analysis into its historical context, which he can take from the economist, sociologist, philosopher, etc., or he can do it as an economist, sociologist, philosopher. This is combining the logical with the chronological properly. Establish the correct general meaning and, in it, insert the transcendent data that indicate it verified thoroughly. Hence the formally connective character of all historical knowledge. Establishing the connection is historical knowledge. The rest is only indirectly, materially, if it is only preparing the materials. The form of historical knowledge is the dynamic and connective synthesis of the continuity of phenomena or processes. Analyzing isolated historical objects is not a historical task. But he does insert that analysis into its historical context, which he can take from the economist, sociologist, philosopher, etc., or he can do it as an economist, sociologist, philosopher. This is combining the logical with the chronological properly. Establish the correct general meaning and, in it, insert the transcendent data that indicate it verified thoroughly. Hence the formally connective character of all historical knowledge. Establishing the connection is historical knowledge. The rest is only indirectly, materially, if it is only preparing the materials. The form of historical knowledge is the dynamic and connective synthesis of the continuity of phenomena or processes. Analyzing isolated historical objects is not a historical task. But he does insert that analysis into its historical context, which he can take from the economist, sociologist, philosopher, etc., or he can do it as an economist, sociologist, philosopher. This is combining the logical with the chronological properly. Establish the correct general meaning and, in it, insert the transcendent data that indicate it verified thoroughly. The rest is only indirectly, materially, if it is only preparing the materials. The form of historical knowledge is the dynamic and connective synthesis of the continuity of phenomena or processes. Analyzing isolated historical objects is not a historical task. But he does insert that analysis into its historical context, which he can take from the economist, sociologist, philosopher, etc., or he can do it as an economist, sociologist, philosopher. This is combining the logical with the chronological properly. Establish the correct general meaning and, in it, insert the transcendent data that indicate it verified thoroughly. The rest is only indirectly, materially, if it is only preparing the materials. The form of historical knowledge is the dynamic and connective synthesis of the continuity of phenomena or processes. Analyzing isolated historical objects is not a historical task. But he does insert that analysis into its historical context, which he can take from the economist, sociologist, philosopher, etc., or he can do it as an economist, sociologist, philosopher. This is combining the logical with the chronological properly. Establish the correct general meaning and, in it, insert the transcendent data that indicate it verified thoroughly. But he does insert that analysis into its historical context, which he can take from the economist, sociologist, philosopher, etc., or he can do it as an economist, sociologist, philosopher. This is combining the logical with the chronological properly. Establish the correct general meaning and, in it, insert the transcendent data that indicate it verified thoroughly. But he does insert that analysis into its historical context, which he can take from the economist, sociologist, philosopher, etc., or he can do it as an economist, sociologist, philosopher. This is combining the logical with the chronological properly. Establish the correct general meaning and, in it, insert the transcendent data that indicate it verified thoroughly.

All these approaches link and apply to the teaching methodology. How to work the chronology more than as memorization of dates, as search of the dates of significant historical phenomena, exposing their meaning. This helps to avoid quantophrenia (Gurvicht). In historical knowledge, understanding leads to connecting unity the plural elements co-involved and verified. His only standard is truth. In this way, the bureaucratic vision of history and also the historical manipulation of the opposite sign can be overcome.

All this using the common, plain, simple, sober language that, on the other hand, is the most appropriate in history, not pedantry, which is inappropriate in everything. History has never felt the need to use technicalities, says F. Suárez; and Braudel strongly recommends using the living words of the vulgar language. This does not take away, but, on the contrary, requires students to clarify the technicalities and topical terminologies of fashion schools so that they lose their fear and know how to handle themselves with ease before realities beyond the barrier of appearances. .

Freedom and truth in history

The human or social sciences are not deterministic. They cannot succeed in establishing deterministic laws that allow us to know the human future in mathematical terms from natural empirical data. The free personality of each individual in the multitude of human societies must be taken into account. However, there is a conditional part in the freedom of human acts. You have to count on conditioning, with what man decides and with what he does not decide.

It is evident that man as a rational animal that is, according to the Aristotelian expression, is a being on the one hand biological, submitted as such to the laws of biochemistry. And it enters the schemes of characterology by psychosomatic interaction. It is also immersed in nature. It is also evident, on the other hand, that, as a rational and social being by nature -also according to Aristotle himself-, he always tends towards the affirmation and realization of values ​​such as truth, justice, kindness, brotherhood, solidarity, industry, creativity … And that he has passions to submit so that they promote in the same sense, because if not, they frustrate those values ​​by submitting and turning him into an evil for himself and for others.

For its part, Sociology tells us that in addition to the factors of nature, there are social and economic factors that also influence human endeavors: geographic and demographic factors; the economic conditions so linked in turn to geographic and demographic, in addition to cultural factors; social (national or regional idiosyncrasy, customs, traditions, propaganda and publicity, social pressure, social control); political (coercion, pressure, ideological internalization, terrorism) … All this is true that conditions human acts, especially considered on a social scale. And that there are many reflexive and instinctive, passionate acts, influenced and coerced by propaganda and other pressures and not so purely voluntary, even and especially in those who say they do what they want. But all this does not eliminate free will: it is one thing that the will can or not and quite another that in what it can, little or much, is free, as Ferrán says. And the role of human free will is the affirmation and realization of those values ​​through material and social conditioning and even using them. Freedom is the liberation from the constraints of evil precisely, the power to liberate oneself, or in fact to be liberated from the harmful constraints, not to always have to do wrong, forced internally or externally, but to be able to do well. And the role of human free will is the affirmation and realization of those values ​​through material and social conditioning and even using them. Freedom is the liberation from the constraints of evil precisely, the power to liberate oneself, or in fact to be liberated from the harmful constraints, not to always have to do wrong, forced internally or externally, but to be able to do well. And the role of human free will is the affirmation and realization of those values ​​through material and social conditioning and even using them. Freedom is the liberation from the constraints of evil precisely, the power to liberate oneself, or in fact to be liberated from the harmful constraints, not always having to do evil by force, coerced internally or externally, but to be able to act well.

The truth

However, they can be called social sciences in the sense that they seek demonstrative knowledge with evidence of the truth of their conclusions. And they look for it with methods that can be highly specialized, sometimes using the most modern technology to obtain information from their sources and mathematical procedures in the treatment of their data. The object of Science is the truth or, what is the same, what science seeks is the knowledge of reality. Not subjectivisms, which are a source of confrontation, but the truth, in which we can all agree. As Machado said (Proverbs and songs, LXXXV):

“Your truth? No, the Truth, and come with me to look for it. Yours, keep it.”

And also, in what can be applied to reject the bureaucratic concept of history, as Einstein expressed it in a letter to the Minister of Education of Mussolini before 1932:

“The desire to achieve the truth must prevail over all others. It was this principle that allowed our civilization to begin its development … the search for scientific truth, regardless of the practical interests of everyday life, is something that every government should consider sacred, and in the interest of all, honest servants of truth should be allowed to work in peace. “

Geography and History have been integrating for a long time a whole set of material elements from the other social sciences, in addition to others from the natural sciences and some mathematical operations, and, of course, are informed by the underlying or explicit philosophical conceptions, but always decisive for understanding and, therefore, for expressing historical knowledge: ” The truth of history is a function of the truth of the philosophy that the historian puts into play” (HI Marrou).

In fact, teachers of Geography and History generally know the other social sciences through this integration and use of their knowledge in our usual disciplines, but from the point of view, or formal, geographic or historical object. The material object can be and is the same as that of other sciences, but the formal object, what they do with those materials, defines them as essentially different sciences. Each science receives its principles from its superior science. The concept of what things are and what man is and of everything human is received by History and the Geography of Philosophy. When the geographer and the historian, in order to make their Geography and their History, essentially know and define what is man and all that is human, to explain how it has become and how it is distributed over the surface of the planet, they know and define it by doing philosophy. Even if it is based on what the philosopher says, it is the geographer and the historian who must understand and express it. And so they do, be it good philosophy, or false philosophy, as it happens.

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