Hazelnut Dried fruit that comes from the Latin name of the common hazel ( Corylus avellana ), also known as Cordovan hazelnut. Botanically this fruit is considered a nucula . It has a spheroidal shape, with an approximate diameter of 10 to 15 mm. It is formed by an external fibrous shell that surrounds a smooth cover in which the seed is housed. The fibrous shell dries out during ripening.
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- 1 Uses
- 2 Properties
- 3 Season
- 4 Climate and soil
- 5 Collection
- 6 Sources
The kernel of the seed is edible, being used both raw and cooked (whole or in paste). The dark skin that covers the seed has a bitter taste so it is sometimes removed for consumption.
Hazelnut is also an oil with a strong and characteristic flavor that is for food use. Hazelnuts are widely used in confectionery, caramelised or mixed with chocolate .
In Austria , especially in Vienna, hazelnut paste is one of the main ingredients of the world famous Torts .
Hazelnuts contain: very little water, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, fiber and many calories.
- Vitamins: B1, E, A.
- Minerals: Potassium, Phosphorus, Calcium, Sodium.
- Others: Folic Acid. Antioxidant, monounsaturated fats (oleic acid, and linoleic acid.
- Reduce the cholesterol.
- During lactation.
- During pregnancy: helps the good fetus formation.
- Intestinal transit.
- They help in osteoporosis and decalcification.
- Cardiovascular and degenerative problems (pipes without salt)
- They are good for teeth and bones.
- Renal insufficiency.
- Hepatic cirrhosis.
Hazelnuts are harvested in the fall . For the celebration of Todos los Santos, on November 1 , is the peak of its consumption.
Its varieties are classified into 3 groups:
- Corylus avellana racemosa Lam
- Corylus hazelnut glandulosa Lin
- Corylua hazelnut maximum Lam. or Neapolitan
Once at home the hazelnuts are stored in a jar out of the light, tightly closed so that it does not get into the air and in a dry and cool place.
Climate and soil
It is a plant with temperate climates, although it has a notable distribution area (from North Asia it passes to Russia , Austria , Germany , France , Spain and Italy ).
The annual average temperatures should oscillate between 12 and 16ºC, with a minimum of 700 cold-hours below 7ºC and minimum winter temperatures not lower than -8ºC. It prefers airy locations with a high temperature coupled with a certain degree of humidity, since it favors the fruiting and development of hazelnuts.
Without being very demanding, the hazel requires a deep, fresh, soft soil, of a siliceous-calcareous-clayey or calcareous-siliceous-clayey nature and with permeable subsoil, with a pH between 5.5 and 7.8.
It does not do well in excessively sandy soils or in clayey soils where it can be affected by standing water, and the plant has a limited development. Hazelnut is very sensitive to drought, and if the lands are excessively calcareous and dry in nature, it can suffer from lack of moisture. In the slightest drought, premature fruit drop is very frequent, and the harvest may be reduced.
It is possible to plant hazelnuts in frost-ridden places that are not suitable for other fruit trees, but it is safer to plant them in frost-free locations.
Harvesting is carried out when the involucre has changed color and begins to wilt, since if done in advance, the seed does not completely fill the cavity of the shell and is more tasteless.
The quality hazelnut must be collected quickly and with less than 7% humidity, otherwise it must be dried under suitable conditions. The harvest is carried out manually and the hazelnuts are subsequently spread, never arranging them in layers over 40 cm thick.
Their storage is carried out in the shell and inside normally ventilated silos protected from significant thermal oscillations. Every two or three days they must be carefully stirred and after 15 days they are beaten to separate the dome or shaken in sieves so that acquire a bright red color. After being beaten, they are separated with a suitable rake.
The hazelnuts that still remain with the casing attached show that they are imperfect and must be separated immediately. Subsequently, they must also be removed every two or three days to prevent fungal attack.