What Is Glutathione;Properties and benefits

The Glutathione is a naturally molecule.It is made of three amino acids (glycine, cysteine, glutamic acid).GSH is considered the most important antioxidant on a cellular level.It is a powerful antioxidant , which plays an important role in all life forms. 

In healthy cells, the ratio between reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione remains around 9: 1; a decrease is considered an index of oxidative stress.


Glutathione and AcetylcysteineChemical structure of Glutathione (left) and Acetyl Cysteine ​​(right).

Below, chemical structure of the amino acids that lead to the synthesis of glutathione: in the order (from left to right) glutamic acid, cysteine ​​and glycine

Glutamic acid Cysteine ​​Glycine


In order for glutathione to carry out these actions it is essential that it is supported by adequate quantities of selenium – a mineral that abounds in marine food and  offal  – of riboflavin ( Vit. B2 ) and niacin ( Vit. PP ).

What is glutathione used for?

It is mainly known for its function as a natural antioxidant, produced by the body itself. In cells and organs it takes part in various processes: from the production of tissues and other molecules,. Administered directly into the vein, it is used to reduce the effects of chemotherapy treatments against diabetes, cancer, Parkinson’s, anemia associated with dialysis, atherosclerosis and male fertility problems. By inhalation, it is instead recommended in the treatment of lung diseases.

Glutathione is one of the main protagonists of the cellular antioxidant response.
Concentrated in the cytoplasmic environment , thanks to its particular chemical structure, glutathione intervenes in maintaining the correct state of intracellular oxidation reduction, acting as a scavenger molecule against oxygen free radicals.
In addition to the strong antioxidant activity, detoxifying , immunomodulating and cytoprotective activities are also attributed to glutathione .
For these reasons, from preliminary studies, integration with glutathione would seem useful in case of:

  • Diabetes and metabolic pathologies;
  • Atherosclerosis ;
  • Respiratory pathologies;
  • Hearing loss;
  • Male infertility ;
  • Heavy metal poisoning;
  • AIDS

Property and Effectiveness

What benefit has glutathione shown during the studies?

The different biological functions of glutathione would seem to support its clinical utility.
From several clinical works, and from numerous experimental studies, the administration of glutathione would seem useful in:

  • Protect the liver from the transforming action of potential toxic substances;
  • Protect liver, kidneys and nervous system from the side effects of chemotherapy ;
  • Reduce the evolution of atherosclerosis by modulating platelet aggregation processes ;
  • To improve the clinical features in the course of oxidative lung diseases;
  • Improve the profile and insulin activity in patients with diabetes;
  • Improve sperm motility and viability in patients with fertility disorders 

How to use glutathione

Glutathione is commercially available as a single ingredient or  with other molecules with antioxidant activity.
Generally, the suggested glutathione dosage is between 50 and 600 mg daily, depending on the patient’s needs.
In order to enhance the antioxidant activity of glutathione, it could be possible to resort to the contextual use of other bioactive molecules such as selenium, B vitamins , vitamin A , C or E.

Side effects

The use of glutathione, within the suggested dosages, is generally well tolerated and free of clinically relevant side effects.Gastrointestinal adverse reactions have been observed very rarely.


When should glutathione not be used?

The use of glutathione is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to the active substance .

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