Learn about concepts related to genetics that can explain characteristics related to the physical appearance of each individual.We know that every human being is different from each other in appearance-related physical matters. But what raises questions in many people is how this differentiation is made? Why are some people blond, some brunette, some tall, some short? It’s what you will find out now!
First, one should establish basics about genetics. One of the primary concepts for explaining people’s appearance is based on the terms ‘phenotype’ and ‘genotype’.
What is genotype?
The concept of genotype is linked to the genetic makeup of an individual, ie, refers to the genes existing in certain individuals . Because it is a portion of the DNA molecule that has our genetic information, the gene is responsible for ensuring the determination of some hereditary traits, that is, transmitted from parent to child.
That is, it is said that the genotype, being the set of chromosomes or gene sequence inherited from parents, which added to environmental influences, will determine its phenotype (external characteristics).
What is phenotype?
Phenotype refers to the external, morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics of individuals . This is due to the result of the interaction of the environment and its set of genes (genotype).
Examples of phenotype are eye shape, skin tone, hair color and texture etc.
Thus, the combination of genes (genotype), which will later determine the appearance of the individual (phenotype) is responsible for the appearance of the human being. In the group of genes, there are those known as “dominant”, which are traits that manifest most strongly, and “recessive” genes, characteristics that do not manifest.
With this, it is possible to understand, for example, the predominance of the color of the brown eyes of the father (dominant), against the greens of the mother (recessive). In order to have green eyes, since the gene is recessive, it is necessary that not only the father, but the couple have the green eye gene, in order to crossbreeding this gene from both.