The gallbladder is a small organ that indirectly assists in the digestion of food . It is located near the liver and close to the duodenum , being responsible for storing bile , a substance that allows the digestion of fat. However, changes in the composition of bile can occur , which leads to the formation of gallstones , the stones in the gallbladder.
This problem is called cholelithiasis and causes very uncomfortable symptoms because the gallbladder cannot work properly , with the possibility of having its channels blocked by stones. The treatment is done, most of the time, by surgical techniques to remove the stones or the gallbladder entirely, known as laparoscopic cholecystectomy .
There are different techniques for gallbladder surgery, but in all cases it is necessary for the patient to adopt some measures for the preoperative and certain care in the postoperative to ensure their complete recovery . In this article we will talk about these two phases of the treatment of cholelithiasis so that the surgery is a success and you recover well, returning as soon as possible to your normal activities and routine. Keep reading!
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Preoperative of gallbladder stone surgery
To perform gallbladder stone surgery, the doctor will first need the correct diagnosis of the problem and, once the need for the procedure is confirmed, the patient will undergo a preoperative evaluation.
It is necessary to confirm that there is no factor that makes the operation unfeasible . It is necessary to check the patient’s anesthetic and cardiological conditions , as well as to study possible pre-existing problems, such as hypertension, diabetes, among others.
So, the first preoperative steps consist of performing routine exams such as:
- blood count;
- fasting blood glucose;
In addition to all of these, it will be necessary to do a complete ultrasound of the abdomen, a chest X-ray and an electrocardiogram. Depending on the age of the person who will be operated on and other diseases present , further examinations are required , such as spirometry and echocardiography, stress testing and cardiac catheterization.
The result of all these procedures must be taken to the anesthesiologist, as well as analyzed by the professional who will perform the surgery. Only with a favorable result in all of them is progress made for the surgical process.
Other recommendations are essential during the preoperative period of gallbladder stone surgery, as follows:
- adjustment of medications: it is recommended to avoid substances like Aspirin in the days before surgery, so that there are no problems with coagulation. In diabetic clients, dietary adjustments and medications are essential for perfect glycemic control;
- abstention from smoking: the ideal is to stop smoking or, at least, reduce the use of cigarettes as much as possible, if possible one month before surgery, so that there are no pulmonary complications , as well as ensuring good tissue oxygenation and healing without complications;
- Adequacy of food: it is also recommended to avoid foods and beverages that may cause any type of gastric irritation, such as coffee and alcoholic beverages, so that gastritis or ulcers do not appear during the days before surgery.
On the day of surgery
As we explained, there are several surgical techniques for treating gallstones, but in all of them, on the day of surgery, the patient must fast for at least 8 hours of solid food before anesthesia. In addition, excellent personal hygiene is required .
All other preparations are similar to any other surgical technique, and the patient will need to comply with all the bureaucratic procedures for his hospitalization, meeting the guidelines for removing accessories from his body . You will also undergo anesthetic preparation, so that you maintain maximum tranquility when you are sent to the operating room.
Postoperative of gallbladder stone surgery
Vesicle stone surgery lasts from 10 minutes to 2 hours , depending on the technique used and the complexity of each case. After recovery in the first hours, when the patient is ready to go home, he will be discharged and some recommendations for the necessary care.
There is no need for total rest, as the patient must take light and careful walks in a flat, dry place that does not contain obstacles, followed by physical activity that does not cause pain and discomfort in the cuts and does not force the abdomen . The duration and distance of these walks must be gradually increased, according to the patient’s tolerance.
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Today skin points are rarely used. When there are external points, they are removed about a week after the surgery. There is no need to follow a strict diet. The ideal is to adopt a lighter menu, avoiding mainly fatty foods, progressing slowly to normal meals without restrictions.