For a writing to be pleasing to the eye and wish to read it, it needs a series of rules, called Formal Aspects of Scripture. These are:
- That has a readable or understandable letter.
- Have a nice and beautiful presentation.
- That indentation is used, that is, the blank space we leave before we start writing.
- That has right, left, upper and lower margin.
- Avoid spelling mistakes.
- That the correct use of upper and lower case letters be made.
- That the correct use of punctuation marks be made (period, semicolon, colon, semicolon, exclamation and interrogation).
Spelling is the part of the normative grammar in charge of establishing the rules that regulate the correct use of words and punctuation marks in writing.
ORIGIN OF THE WORD :
The word spelling comes from the Greek orthos, which means correct, and from grapho, which means writing. So, we have to spell means write correctly. As we should do when we speak, when writing we must bear in mind that there is a correct way to use words. That will teach us the spelling: to write well, so that we can communicate better, and our recipients understand the messages. In order to learn to write well, it is convenient to study the three parts of spelling separately. These parts are:
- a) The one that refers to the letters with which the words are written, called literal spelling.
- b) That which is related to the punctuation marks with which the words, phrases and sentences are separated; punctual spelling or punctuation.
- c) The one that refers to the accents that carry the different words of our language, which we call accent spelling or accentuation. This is what we will study next.
THE RULES TO COMMUNICATE
The main use we give to the language is to communicate using it. For communication to exist, it is necessary to have several elements: a sender that transmits a message and a receiver willing to decode the message. When communication takes place through written language, there are many factors that influence the understanding of the message, such as calligraphy. Like this, there are other factors that although sometimes they do not make communication impossible, sometimes they make it difficult. One of them is spelling. A text that presents many spelling mistakes, becomes very difficult to read, is confusing, sometimes incomprehensible; and this damages the communication. Spelling is an aspect of written messages that is related to correction. So, We say that a person has “good spelling” when he is able to write by applying the corresponding rules to the language. As the language is wide and varied, these rules are grouped into different areas to cover different aspects of the language. That is why there are accent spelling, literal spelling, and punctual spelling.
IMPORTANCE OF THE ORTOGRAPHY
Spelling is not a mere artifice that can be easily changed. A spelling change represents an important change in a language. Spelling is the element that most firmly maintains the unity of a language spoken by many people from very remote countries. This happens, for example, with Spanish from Spain and Spanish from America. Therefore, if the spelling changes to fit only phonetic criteria, Spanish could be fragmented into as many languages as regions of the world where it is spoken, in which there are some different articulatory habits; and if it were represented in writing, serious problems of understanding would appear over time that would lead to lack of communication. Spelling is not just a strictly grammatical fact,
USE OF THE CAPITAL LETTER
The use of capital letters is one of the most curious aspects of our grammar. Formerly, the first word of each verse was capitalized. By this custom, capital letters are also called versals.
The rules for capitalization are complex, since they are full of exceptions and special cases. Therefore, as with spelling in general, it is necessary to read books to see how writers use capital letters. The Spanish Language Dictionary also indicates in each word when they should be written starting with a capital letter. Sometimes, people use capital letters to arbitrarily highlight some words. This is considered as serious as using lowercase when the rule requires capitalization.
Its functions are to mark the pauses and intonation with which the sentences should be read, organize the discourse and its different elements to facilitate its understanding, avoid possible ambiguities in texts that, without their use, could have different interpretations, and indicate the special character of certain pieces of text – quotes, subparagraphs, interventions by different partners in a dialogue, etc. Information regarding the specific use of each sign is offered in its corresponding entry.
The Point (.): Marks a pause at the end of a sentence. After a period it is always capitalized. There are three types of points:
- Point and followed: separates sentences that make up a paragraph.
- Point and aside: separate different paragraphs with different contents.
The semicolon (;): indicates a pause greater than the comma and less than the period. Used:
- To separate the elements of an enumeration when it comes to expressions that include commas.
- In front of conjunctions or locutions like but, more. Although, however, therefore, when the periods have a certain length.
The Two Points (:): A space between the two points is never left, the two points are used in the following cases.
- In front of an enumeration announced with a verb.
- In textual quotes.
- After the greeting formulas in the letters and documents.
Los Suspensivos Points (…): they suppose an interruption in the sentence or an imprecise end. They are used in the following cases:
- At the end of an enumeration when it has the same value as the word and so on.
- To express a moment of doubt.
- To leave an incomplete and suspended statement.
- When you omit a part of a textual quote.
Question Marks (?): Delimit interrogative statements. In Spanish it is necessary to use the opening sign because we do not have grammatical marks that replace it. A space is never left after the opening question mark or before the closing one. You never write a period behind the question marks. The interrogative sign in parentheses demonstrates doubt or irony.
Exclamation Signs (!): Delimit exclamatory statements or interjections. A space is never left after the opening exclamation point or before the closing one. The exclamation point in parentheses indicates surprise or irony.
Parentheses (): are used in the following cases:
- When the meaning of a speech is interrupted with clarification, especially if it does not have much relation to the above.
- To insert a data or precision (date, authors …)
- To avoid an option in the text
- In the transcription of texts to indicate the omission of a part of the text, three points are placed in parentheses.
Square Brackets (): incorporate complementary information such as parentheses. They are used in the following cases:
- Within a statement that is already in brackets to introduce a precision.
- When in a transcribed text the editor wants to introduce a complementary note to the text.
Comillas (“”): are used to:
- Play text quotes.
- To reproduce the thoughts of the characters in the narrative texts.
- To indicate that a word or expression is improper, vulgar, of another language or with a special or ironic sense.
Long dash or Stripe (-): used in the following cases:
- To enclose clarifications that interrupt the speech. They can be replaced by parentheses.
- In a dialogue when the name of the person or character is not mentioned.
The Script (-): is used:
- To separate (in certain cases) the two elements that make up a compound word.
- To separate a word at the end of a line if it does not fit completely.