Forceps: is an instrument that helps the baby to get out when it is almost outside but does not advance through the birth canal . Hold the baby’s skull on both sides so that the doctor can rotate and pull the head.


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  • 1 Function
  • 2 How they are used
  • 3 Risks for mother and baby
  • 4 Sources


Forceps are used when the ejector is prolonged too long, due to maternal exhaustion or lack of cooperation, and when a loss of fetal well-being is observed. To use the device, three conditions must be met: · The cervix is ​​fully dilated. · That the amniotic bag is broken. · And the head of the fetus fitted (it is essential to know precisely the placement of this). A few years ago it was used to lower the fetus by ten centimeters, but today it is only used for the last two or three centimeters. When problems arise and the baby is not near the exit, a caesarean section is performed. The application of epidural anesthesia it can prolong the delivery and the descent of the fetus’s head, which has caused an increase in instrumental deliveries in recent years.

How they are used

The forceps is a surgical forceps consisting of two metal blades that articulate with each other in their middle part. At one end are the mangoes and at the other the “spoons”. These have a curvature that adapts to the shape of the head of the fetus and the [[pelvis of the woman. The specialist inserts the instrument into the vaginaof the woman, so that the two “spoons” surround the baby’s head in the temporal zone and, taking advantage of the contractions, gently pulls the child out while the mother pushes. If you have not had an epidural, a local anesthetic must be given and injected into the wall of the vagina to anesthetize the genital area. If there is loss of fetal well-being, general anesthesia is sometimes used. It is usually necessary to perform an episiotomy so that there is sufficient space to insert the forceps. Special care is taken not to put too much pressure on the baby’s head so as not to hurt him. The instrument acts as if it were a shoehorn. The real force of expulsion is carried out by the woman in labor, who must push following the instructions of the matron. When you decide to use forceps,

Risks to mother and baby

For the mother, the risks are: Problems urinating or defecating after delivery Increases the risk of tears in the vagina, perineum, and anal sphincter, fistula formation, and dispaurenia (pain during intercourse). However, in most cases, urinary and / or fecal incontinence caused by its use is corrected a few days after delivery. For the baby, the risks are: Bumps (bumps), bruises or marks on the baby’s head or face, which will heal in a few days or weeks. The head may swell or be cone-shaped, which may return to normal usually within a day or two. The baby’s nerves can be damaged by the pressure of the forceps. Baby’s facial muscles may sag if the nerves are injured, but they will return to normal when the nerves heal. The baby can be cut by the forceps and bleed, which is very rare. There may be bleeding inside the baby’s head, which is more serious, but very rare.


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