Foot anatomy

Foot . They are the most distal anatomical part of the lower extremities. The foot articulates with the leg through the ankle . Foot configuration allows standing and upright walking.

Summary

[ hide ]

  • 1 Functions
  • 2 Bone system
  • 3 Musculature
  • 4 bones
  • 5 Deformities
  • 6 Sources

Features

The feet are structured to support the weight of our body . It is the only part of the body in contact with the ground when we stand or move and perform different functions:

  • They act as shock absorbers.
  • They help us maintain balance on uneven surfaces.
  • They provide us with the propulsion, elasticity and flexibility necessary to walk, jump and run.

Osseous system

The foot contains 26 bones (28 if we include the two sesamoid bones ), which are divided into three sections: front foot, middle foot and rear foot. The front foot is made up of 5 metatarsals and 14 phalanges . The metatarsals form a bridge between the middle foot and the toes, and extend when the foot supports weight. Each of the bones has a rounded part called the metatarsal head, which forms the sole of the foot and supports the weight of the body.

Phalanges are the bones of the fingers.

The middle foot is made up of 5 of the 7 tarsi. The tarsi of the middle foot are the cuboid , the scaphoid, and 3 wedge-shaped wedges .

The hind foot is made up of the other two tarsi: the calcaneus and the talus . The talus, or ankle bone, is connected to the two long bones of the lower leg, forming the joint that allows the foot to move up and down.

Musculature

A network of muscles , tendons, and ligaments move, support, and hold the bones of the foot in place.

Muscles have several important functions. They move the feet, lift the toes, stabilize the toes on the ground, control ankle movements and support the arch. Tendons connect muscles to bones and joints. The largest is the Achilles tendon, which runs from the calf muscle to the heel and allows running, jumping, stair climbing and standing on tiptoe.

Ligaments hold tendons in place and stabilize joints. The longest ligament in the foot is the plantar fascia, which forms the arch between the heel and toes and allows balance and walking.

The innervation of the foot musculature is carried out by the main branches of the sciatic . The deep peroneal nerve is responsible for the innervation of the pedio muscle. The posterior tibial nerve supplies the innervation of all the flexor muscles that are located on the sole of the foot. Sensitivity is collected by sensory branches of the two mentioned nerves as well as by the sural nerve and the saphenous nerve .

Bones

Limb of the lower limb that is grounded on the ground and supports the weight of the body. Its skeletal bone is made up of the tarsus , metatarsus, and phalanges .

The heel and back of the instep consist of seven short and thick tarsal bones; Five parallel metatarsal bones form the front of the instep and extend toward the front of the foot to form the metatarsal eminence.

The skeleton of the two feet have a total of 52 bones. They are:

  • Calcaneus is the tarsal bone that articulates above with the talus and in front with the cuboid. The tuberosity of its lower face rests on the ground.
  • Astragalus , the tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint. It is the only tarsal bone that has contact with the leg bones. It also articulates with the calcaneus and the scaphoid .
  • Cuboid, bone located on the external part of the midfoot, articulated with the calcaneus, scaphoid, with third wedge and metatarsals.
  • Scaphoid, the internal bone of the tarsus, located between the talus and the wedges, which is the most external and largest of the first row of the tarsus.
  • External wedge-shaped, so called because of their wedge shape; This bone forms, along with the cuboid, the distal row of the tarsals and articulates with the scaphoid, cuboid and metatarsals.
  • Intermediate wedge-shaped, so called because of their wedge shape; This bone forms, along with the cuboid, the distal row of the tarsals and articulates with the scaphoid, cuboid and metatarsals.
  • Internal wedge-shaped, so called because of their wedge shape; This bone forms, along with the cuboid, the distal row of the tarsals and articulates with the scaphoid, cuboid and metatarsals.
  • Fifth metatarsal, part of the skeleton of the foot between the tarsus and the toes whose skeleton is made up of five long bones that extend from the tarsus to the phalanges (bones of the toes). The metatarsals are numbered starting with the big toe. The fifth metatarsal articulates with the first phalanx or proximal phalanx of the 5th finger.
  • First phalanx or proximal phalanx that articulates with the fifth metatarsal and the second phalanx or middle phalanx of the fifth finger.
  • First phalanx or proximal phalanx that articulates with the fourth metatarsal and the second or middle phalanx of the fourth finger.
  • First phalanx or proximal phalanx that articulates with the third metatarsal and the second or middle phalanx of the third finger.
  • First phalanx or proximal phalanx that articulates with the second metatarsal and the second or middle phalanx of the second finger.
  • First phalanx or proximal phalanx that articulates with the first metatarsal and the second or middle phalanx of the first (big) toe.
  • Second phalanx or middle phalanx that articulates with the third phalanx or distal phalanx of the fifth finger.
  • Third phalanx or distal phalanx that articulates with the second phalanx or middle phalanx of the fifth finger.
  • Fourth metatarsal, part of the foot between the tarsus and the toes whose skeleton is made up of five long bones that extend from the tarsus to the phalanges (toe bones). The metatarsals are numbered starting with the big toe. The fourth metatarsal articulates with the first phalanx or proximal phalanx of the 4th finger.
  • Second phalanx or middle phalanx that articulates with the third phalanx or distal phalanx of the fourth finger.
  • Third phalanx or distal phalanx that articulates with the second phalanx or middle phalanx of the fourth finger.
  • Third Metatarsal, part of the skeleton of the foot between the tarsus and the toes whose skeleton is made up of five long bones that extend from the tarsus to the phalanges (bones of the toes). The metatarsals are numbered starting with the big toe. The third metatarsal articulates with the first phalanx or proximal phalanx of the 3rd finger.

Second phalanx or middle phalanx that articulates with the third phalanx or distal phalanx of the third finger.

  • Third phalanx or distal phalanx that articulates with the second phalanx or middle phalanx of the third finger.
  • Second metatarsal, part of the foot skeleton between the tarsus and the toes whose skeleton is made up of five long bones that extend from the tarsus to the phalanges (bones of the toes). The metatarsals are numbered starting with the big toe. The second metatarsal articulates with the first phalanx or proximal phalanx of the 2nd finger.

Second phalanx or middle phalanx that articulates with the third phalanx or distal phalanx of the second finger.

  • Third phalanx or distal phalanx that articulates with the second phalanx or middle phalanx of the second finger.
  • Metatarsal First part of the skeleton of the foot between the tarsus and the toes whose skeleton is made up of five long bones that extend from the tarsus to the phalanges (bones of the toes). The metatarsals are numbered starting with the big toe. The first metatarsal articulates with the first phalanx or proximal phalanx of the 1st finger.
  • Second phalanx or middle phalanx that articulates with the third phalanx or distal phalanx of the first finger.
  • Small, or fifth finger has three phalanges.
  • Minor, or fourth finger, has three phalanges.
  • Minor, or third finger has three phalanges.
  • Minor, or second finger has three phalanges.
  • Fat, or first finger has two phalanges.

Deformities

  • Adduct Foot: The one in which the anterior part faces outwards in relation to the vertical axis of the leg.
  • Bot Bot: Failed. Deformed foot due to permanent deviation (pineapple foot).
  • Fallen Foot: Paralytic foot in the plantar flexion position due to a neurological injury , such as paralysis of the external popliteal sciatic or another that looks like the dorsiflexor musculature of the foot.
  • Foot Cavo: Deformity characterized by the curvature of the toe towards the heel by an exaggeration of the plantar vault or arch, with apex in the mid-tarsal joint, which leaves the sole of the foot concave and this in equinism.
  • Athlete: Trichophilosis of the foot caused by the fungus Candida albigens, characterized by a certain redness. It is an interdigital mycosis of the toes, frequently acquired in swimming pools and gyms.
  • Charcot’s Foot: Secondary to an inherited-degenerative neuropathy. Deformed foot characteristic of tabetic arthropathy .
  • Friederich’s foot: cavus foot with hyperextension of the toes of hereditary ataxia.
  • Immersion foot: Maceration and intertrigo of the feet that have remained in a prolonged immersion.
  • Mossy foot: Maceration of the soles of the feet after prolonged walks.
  • Rocker foot: Valgus, convex, congenital foot, acquired due to a tarsal-metatarsal abnormality (vertical talus).
  • Pronated foot: Varus foot of the forefoot due to a stress fracture of a metatarsal, which occurs as a result of a forced gait. Initially described in soldiers, it is also called a walking foot or Deutschlander disease .
  • Equine Foot: Foot that occurs in forced plantar flexion.
  • Valgus Equine Foot: Equine foot that supports the inner edge of the plant.
  • Forced Foot: Foot that presents a painful swelling (due to overload).
  • Foot Metatarsus varus: Abduction of the metatarsals with a certain variety of metatarsus.
  • Flat Foot: Foot that is characterized by a sinking of the longitudinal arch, so that it supports the entire plant on the ground.
  • Flat foot spastic: Flat foot in which supination is impossible due to various congenital or acquired causes (it may be due to synostosis of the tarsus).
  • Flat foot valgus pain: Adolescent’s own foot.
  • Valgus Foot: Deformity in which the foot is deviated in pronation and supports the inner edge.
  • Varus Foot: Deformity in which the foot is deviated in supination and supports the external edge.
  • Clubfoot: Counterbalanced foot, generally of the varus equine type.

 

Leave a Comment