Fifth generation computers. They are computers based on artificial intelligence. The fifth generation of computers was an ambitious project launched by Japan in the late 1970s. Its goal was to develop a class of computers that would use machine-language-level artificial intelligence techniques and would be able to solve complex problems, such as automatic translation from one natural language to another.
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- 1 Background and Project Design
- 2 Applications of Computing
- 1 Domestic Control Systems
- 2 Automobiles
- 3 Robots
- 4 Natural Language
- 3 News
- 4 Sources
Background and Project Design
Through the multiple generations since the 1950s, Japan had been the follower in terms of the advancement and construction of the United States and United Kingdom Model computers . Japan decided to break with this nature of following leaders, and in the mid-1970s it began to make its way to a future in the computer industry. The Japan Information Development and Processing Center was responsible for carrying out a plan to develop the project. In 1979 they offered a three-year contract to carry out more in-depth studies together with industry and academia. It was during this period that the term “fifth generation computer” began to be used.
The main fields for the investigation of this project initially were:
- Technologies for the knowledge process
- Technologies to process databases and massive knowledge bases
- High performance workstations
- Distributed functional computing
- Supercomputers for scientific calculation
Due to the commotion that caused the Japanese to be successful in the area of electronics during the 1970s, and to practically do the same in the automotive area during the 1980s, the fifth generation project had a lot reputation among the other countries.
Such was its impact that parallel projects were created. In the United States, the Corporation for Microelectronics and Computer Technologies, in England it was Alves, and in Europe its reaction was known as the European Program in Strategic Research of Information Technology.
As one of the final products of the Project, 5 Parallel Inference Machines (PIMs) were developed, having 256 Networked Processing elements as one of their main characteristics. The project also produced tools that could be used with these systems such as the Kappa Parallel Database Management System, the HELIC-II Legal Reasoning System and the Automated MGTP Approvals Theorem.
It has also been said that the fifth generation includes the use of expert systems, these are artificial intelligence applications that use a knowledge base of human experience to help solve problems.
Computers of this generation contain a large number of microprocessors working in parallel and can recognize voice and images. They also have the ability to communicate with a natural language and will gradually acquire the ability to make decisions based on learning processes based on expert systems and artificial intelligence.
The only forecast that has been made without interruptions in the course of this generation is the connectivity between computers, which since 1994, with the advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web, has acquired vital importance in large , medium and small companies, and among private users of computers.
- They will be made with very high integration microcircuits, which will work with a high degree of parallelism, imitating some characteristics of the neural networks with which the human brain works.
- Computers with Artificial Intelligence
- Interconnection between all types of computers, devices and integrated networks
- Integration of data, images and voice (multimedia environment)
- Use of natural language (fifth generation language)
- Use of higher level programs
- New input and output devices
Applications increasingly demand greater data processing and storage capacity. Special systems, multimedia systems (combination of text, graphics, images, and sounds), distributed databases, and neutral networks are just a few examples of those needs. One of the main characteristics of this generation is the simplification and miniaturization of the computer, in addition to better performance and greater storage capacity.
As for Artificial Intelligence, its purpose is to equip Computers with “Human Intelligence” and with the ability to reason to find solutions. Another fundamental design factor is the ability of the Computer to recognize patterns and sequences of processing that it has previously found, (Heuristic programming) that allows the Computer to remember previous results and include them in the processing. In essence, the Computer will learn from its own experiences, use its original data to elicit the answer through reasoning, and retain those results for further processing and decision-making tasks.
Many and varied examples of the technological development that is in its infancy are available. They play a prominent role in computing, microelectronics, microprocessors, robotics and expert systems and present, with some approximation, a vision of what the future may be. Below are some of the equipment that may already be on the market, or have been anticipated and considered as a possible target.
Domestic Control Systems
The first models of domestic control systems are already known, the object of a new discipline called demotics. It consists of remote control mechanisms designed for use in private homes, with such a system and adequate installation of peripherals, it is possible to control and operate on all or almost all the elements of the house. The system has a central unit that allows you to program digitally or graphically the desired functions and order their execution immediately or deferred.
Automation – smart – has been introduced since the 1980s in automobiles. It is not only about the on-board computers that control fundamental parts of the vehicle and that verbally report incidents, but also applications that affect safety through highly effective automation, such as ABS, airbag, control brakes. speed so that the stability and control of the car are not jeopardized.
The 1980s led to notable progress in robotics. From a task as simple as removing dust with a vacuum cleaner and conveniently dodging obstacles (which are not always the same or in the same place) and the maneuver to avoid them and continue working with the vacuum cleaner.
A great goal is the treatment of natural language. It consists of computers (and their robotics applications) being able to communicate with people without any difficulty in understanding, either orally or in writing.
Here is the realization of a long-lasting dream: talk to the machines, that understand the speaker’s language and make themselves understood in it. Language synthesis and voice recognition are two aspects of the same purpose. The achievements that have been achieved are clearly partial and insufficient, but encouraging.
In the last decades the use of computers as work tools has advanced, evidence of this is:
- Artificial Intelligence Techniques.
- Robots, which perform physical and computational activities.
- Expert systems, based on human experience: medical diagnostics, equipment repair, choice of routes for vehicles.
Summarizing the theme, it can be said that the main characteristic of this generation would be the application of artificial intelligence. Computers of this generation contain a large number of microprocessors working in parallel, in addition to this they can recognize voice and images. But even more surprising, they have the ability to communicate with a natural language and will gradually acquire the ability to make decisions based on learning processes based on expert systems and artificial intelligence.