Fibrin: What is it, and what is its use in dentistry

The Fibrin is a protein that acts as a first response when its body is wounded, in order to play an important role in the blood clotting process. When any type of injury occurs that generates blood leakage, clotting begins, an alert is then sent to the body to start producing fibrin.

In the form of long strands, each fibrin molecule intertwines to form a fine mesh around the lesion. As a result, this mesh stops the blood capturing red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets, generating a clot and forming a kind of plug at the injured site.

For this reason, fibrin allows for a series of cellular interactions and provides a temporary matrix in which cells can proliferate, organize and perform their functions, especially in places that have suffered injury or inflammation.

For a few years, Fibrin Rich in Platelets (PRF) has been used in order to accelerate healing and regeneration in several surgical procedures, mainly orthopedics, neurology and plastic surgery. As well as in the dental field, being used in small bone grafts for dental implants, in periodontal and maxillofacial surgeries .

APPLICATION OF FIBRIN IN DENTISTRY

Although the use of fibrin is still small in dentistry, this is a technique that has been widely studied, pointing out a great potential for improving results in several procedures.

However, advances over the years have allowed its application in offices and today is a major innovation in oral surgeries. Thus, Fibrin Rich in Platelets is used in regenerative dentistry as a concentrate of autologous growth factors capable of stimulating tissue regeneration.

These growth factors are responsible for the increased production of collagen, cell mitosis, growth of blood vessels, recruitment of other cells that migrate to the injury site, in order to assist the production of new tissue for the patient.

As it is an autologous modality, when the material is removed from the patient himself, the risk of rejection or infections is also reduced or eliminated.

That is why the PRF is so efficient in the process of accelerating the regeneration of soft and hard tissues in dentistry. Since it presents itself as an optimized clot, forming a structure that allows the graft to be reconstituted with the patient’s own cells, inducing the natural healing process much faster.

PREPARATION PROCESS OF PLATELET RICH FIBRIN (PRF)

Platelet Rich Fibrin is a biomaterial derived from human blood and the technique used for its extraction is very simple and easy.

A blood sample is drawn from the patient just before the surgical procedure. Namely, the tube with the blood cannot contain any type of additive.

The blood is then placed in a centrifuge to perform the separation:

  • First layer: transparent liquid, plasma
  • Second layer: thick and yellow, Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF)
  • Third layer: red, red blood cells

The second layer containing the PRF is used and the others will be discarded. Care must be taken when handling the tube so that the material does not mix again.

The dentist will apply the PRF to the patient and this will speed up the healing process and also minimize the patient’s discomfort in the postoperative period.

The success of this technique depends entirely on the time interval between the collection of blood and its transfer to centrifugation.

ADVANTAGES OF USING PRF

  • Its preparation is a simplified and efficient technique, since centrifugation is in a single step and accessible to all clinicians.
  • It is obtained by an autologous blood sample with minimal blood handling.
  • No risk of suffering an immunological reaction, since the blood is the patient’s own.
  • Natural fibrin structure with growth factors that effectively stimulate tissue regeneration.
  • It can be used alone or in combination with bone grafts, depending on the purpose.

 

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