Evolutionary Biology. Central discipline within Biology , giving coherence and connection to the branches of the study of life. It is the area that studies the origins and descent of the species, as well as their changes over time.
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Evolutionary biology is a current within Botany that was born in 1943 and which aims to delimit biotic units as natural, naming the species as “natural species”. You have to know what these species are and the techniques that allow them to be identified.
There has been a lot of association between evolutionary biology and the evolutionary concept of species. Its main objective has been to study the processes of appearance of biological entities between which genetic exchange cannot occur, so that they establish themselves as different lineages. This isolation is a by-product of the speciation process: the species appear to take advantage of different niches in the medium, the isolation is a by-product but allows the gene collections that determine that the different niches are occupied not to be diluted.
Throughout history it is known that species have evolved to reach those that are present today, species evolve due to mutations which may or may not be beneficial for individuals of a species, in the case of The preservation of this change in the species, as it is beneficial, will be said to have evolved. But be careful, you cannot always call a change “evolution” even if it is beneficial. There are cases in which an evolution can occur without the need for a morphological change in the individual and vice versa.
For example, today humans are taller than a few years ago and this is due to the improvement in the environment, that is, improvement in food, health, etc … however this cannot be classified as “evolution” because for it to be considered evolution it would have to be transmitted by genes, this is due to the environment only so it cannot be considered evolution, this is something that is often confused with evolution “a morphological change caused by conditions external to the genetics of the individual. ”
Evolutionary Biology studies the ultimate causes of the origin and differentiation of species or, in more general terms, of any biological system with the capacity for reproduction, inheritance and variation between generations. Many biologists agree that genes , chromosomes , cells , organisms, and groups of related individuals are true evolutionary systems, and others argue that species, taxa of higher rank than species, and even ecosystems are units of selection capable of displaying adaptations.
Evolutionary biology thrives on areas such as classical, molecular , and population genetics , behavioral ecology, paleontology , anthropology , systematics , medicine , psychology , etc., using tools that range from mathematical modeling , field work, laboratory or bioinformatics .
Evolutionary Biology is a central discipline within Biology , giving coherence and connection to the branches of the study of life. Almost invariably associated with synthetic theory or neo-Darwinian synthesis, the study of evolution focuses on competitive phenomena and processes of population variation of gene sequences under the constant influence of natural selection. However, the increasing importance, in representation and transcendence, of phenomena considered traditionally exceptional (such as symbiosis, the horizontal transfer and the activity of mobile elements), can be of great relevance to the general conception of evolutionary biology, requiring an approach that places them as central elements of evolution and not as mere exceptions, around a model nature’s most holistic.
Evolution is the central pillar of the biological sciences. This concept represents a unifying base of the branches of the study of life, interconnecting them and giving a global and temporal context to them. Furthermore, its scope goes beyond the mere theoretical aspect, being deeply involved in the way of understanding the world and producing technology. Conceived as the natural phenomenon of species change over time, today the term is almost invariably associated with synthetic theory (or neo-Darwinian synthesis) derived from the premises of Charles Darwinand population genetics, thus superimposing the non-equivalent concepts of evolution (as a historical process) and evolutionary biology (study of evolution through theories). This nuance is important, since it implies that both issues can be falsified or evidenced independently.
Thus, assuming evolution as a factual process, we will focus on evolutionary biology as its analysis method. The aforementioned synthetic theory, as a starting point for greater representation, uses a series of general assumptions, as well as the introduction of other traditionally more exceptional phenomena, to make sense of the evolutionary phenomenon.
These assumptions would be: the primary origin of diversity by gene mutation and recombination, natural selection (a priori of the individual) as a key element based on competition (as primary natural relationship) for resources, differential reproduction and frequency change genetics, generating a gradual change by substitution over time, with the population ultimately evolving.
In addition, genetic drift and migration processes are assumed as phenomena involved in population change, this variation being a linear and continuous process that guarantees adaptation to the environment until the generation of new species, leading to their evolution (concatenation of events).
Although other evidences of historical scope have been superimposed on this conceptual skeleton (saltationism, symbiogenesis, horizontal transfer, etc.) that imply a certain contradiction with some of its principles, these are commonly considered as exceptional (annexed to the basic premises and / or minor), finally being included under the cornerstone of natural selection and “general” evolutionary processes. In addition, in view of the fossil record, a conceptual distinction is made (but with extrapolated functioning) between macroevolution (appearance of major clades) and microevolution (population), being irresolute if the increase in complexity, quite apparent at the macroevolutionary level but poorly explained and quite questioned at microevolutionary views, it is inherent in evolution.
Evolution is a change in the gene pool of a population over time. A gene is a hereditary unit that can be transmitted without alteration through many generations. The gene pool is the set of all genes of a species or population .
Evolution has been called the cornerstone of biology, and for good reason. Research in biology is possible with little or no knowledge of evolution. Most biologists do it. But, without evolution, biology becomes a crazy set of fields. Evolutionary explanations span all fields of biology and bring them all together under one theoretical umbrella.