Hernia is the total or partial exit of one or more organs through the opening of an orifice, being considered as a pathological state that can appear in different parts of the body.

The exit of viscera through rupture of the skin and peritoneum, as occurs with traumatic or post-operative eviscerations, are not considered hernias.

Types of hernias

Hernias are classified according to the location where the tissue ruptured and caused the organ to exteriorize. Below is a list of the most common types of hernia.

Inguinal hernia

Inguinal hernia

The inguinal hernia corresponds to a loop in the intestine that was expelled through an opening in the abdominal wall to the inguinal canal, which is located in the groin.

This channel is the place of passage from the testicles to the scrotum, before the baby is born.

The rupture in the abdominal wall that causes the hernia may be present from birth or appear over time.

See also: Large Intestine

Herniated disc

Herniated disc

The herniated disc is located in the spine and occurs when a vertebral disc is not located correctly and causes compression of the nerve roots that are branched from the spinal cord.

This type of hernia can occur in the lumbar and cervical region and causes pain and, in some cases, numbness or weakness in the arms and legs.

The causes for this type of hernia are related to the wear of the discs located between the vertebrae that form the spinal column.

In most cases the treatment is carried out in a few months, only more extreme cases can result in chronic pain.

See also: Spine

Epigastric hernia

Epigastric hernia

Epigastric hernia, also known as abdominal hernia, corresponds to the protrusion of the intestine, causing a noticeable dilation with little discomfort.

Very common in men, this type of hernia appears in an area of ​​weakness in the abdominal wall.

Umbilical hernia

Umbilical hernia

Umbilical hernia is very common in babies and the main cause for this type of hernia is justified by the abdominal opening that occurred to the umbilical cord and that was not closed properly by blood vessels.

It can occur in adults, but in these cases related to obesity , pregnancy or excess fluid in the abdomen.

Muscle hernia

Muscle hernia

Muscle hernia, in most cases, is a consequence of physical exercise, representing the swelling of the muscle causing lump points to be created.

The most suitable treatment is rest, as it tends to disappear with time. Only in more extreme cases is medical advice recommended.

Expand your study of muscles and also read:

  • Muscle tissue
  • Muscular system
  • Muscular contraction

Incisional hernia

Incisional hernia

The incisional hernia appears in the scar of surgeries already performed, and can appear in a short time after the surgery or even after years.

The main cause for this type of hernia is related to the weakness of the abdominal wall at the surgery site.

Hernia symptoms

The main symptoms to identify the hernia are:

  • Overhang on the skin;
  • Pain in the region after physical exertion.

For the correct diagnosis of the hernia, the doctor conducts physical exams by feeling the region and, to conclude the diagnosis and identify the severity, the ultrasound exam is performed.

In cases of extreme pain and sudden changes in the region, it is recommended to seek emergency medical attention.

What causes hernia?

The hernia is caused by the detachment of the organ part, which can be congenital or acquired. This rupture causes the expelled organ to invade a space that it should not have.

Among the acquired causes, the following stand out:

  • Carrying weight frequently when exercising or at work;
  • Make extreme effort;
  • Make a lot of force to defecate;
  • Having an excessive cough;
  • Having pregnancies in short periods of time.

There is no age limit for the appearance of hernias. Even though it is more frequent in adults, children usually present with umbilical hernia early in life, but it tends to heal itself over time.


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