A descriptive, ethnographic, qualitative study was designed, based on the method of ethnoengineering proposed by Madeleine Leininger , this method allows to document, preserve and correctly interpret meanings and experiences about the care of different cultural groups, additionally, it was designed to describe the real way of how people knew and lived their own experience (12) .
The study involved 12 pregnant women due to IVF, as key participants, who attended a fertility center for treatment in Bogotá Colombia; and as general participants, 9 nurses and 1 gynecologist with experience in caring for these pregnant women, and who participated voluntarily, signing the informed consent.
Sampling by theoretical saturation
For the selection of key participants, theoretical saturation sampling and criteria recommended by Sandoval (13) were taken into account , including:
First, the relevance, where pregnant women were identified in vitro fertilization products treated for their treatment, who decided to participate in the study and who provided the greatest and best information to the research.
Second, the adaptation was carried out by saturation of the information where sufficient data were obtained to develop a complete and with a broad description of the phenomenon.
Third, the convenience, the place for the collection of the information was arranged with each participant, in most of the interviews they were conducted in the participants’ homes for ease of use, the researcher had an open, respectful attitude of Listening and active learning.
Finally, the opportunity for this was agreed with each of the participants the place, day and time required to collect the information, with each of the pregnant women who agreed to participate in the study. This invitation was made after the diagnosis of pregnancy.
For the collection of the information, the facilitators recommended by M. Leininger were applied:
Strange facilitator – friend, his goal in the case of the researcher, was to move from the role of stranger to that of friend to achieve the required trust with the participants and thus ensure a credible, meaningful and successful study.
Facilitator of observation-participation-reflection (OPR), which was used in the collection and analysis of information. For which the researcher began with an observation period before becoming an active participant, Model of the Rising Sun and in-depth interview.
( Also read: Chronological Age of the Gestantes )
An ethnographic interview guide was used according to Spradley (14) with general and open questions raised from the theory. Participants were encouraged to express themselves in their own language or dialect.
Initially, questions were asked, heard instead of speaking, verbal interest and eye contact with the participant was expressed.
For the application of the interview there was an interview guide, with general and open questions, arising from Leininger’s theory to learn and explore the vision of the pregnant woman’s world and the factors of the social and cultural structure that influence the expressions and patterns of care practices, such as economic, educational, technological, religious, philosophical, family, social, political and legal factors, cultural values and lifestyles, contemplated in the Model of the Rising Sun.
The questions included the following:
- First, how was this in vitro gestation experience?
- Second, how has it been taken care of?
- Third, how has your experience with the Fertility Center been?
- Fourth, how has your family relationship been in this gestation situation?
- Fifth, how has your relationship with friends and relatives been?
- Sixth, how was your experience with the treatment that has been applied?
- Seventh, who do you go to when you have a need?
- Ninth, how has your life changed with this in vitro gestation experience?
- Tenth, how is your relationship with other women who have conceived by in vitro fertilization?
Do you want to tell me something else?
The answers raised new questions that allowed to deepen the phenomenon of study. Once the interviews have been recorded. These were transcribed verbatim and reviewed and analyzed.
With some participants, more than one interview was conducted in order to further deepen the phenomenon. A total of 15 interviews were applied to the 12 key participants.
After this, 10 interviews were conducted, with the 10 general participants with questions that allowed to expand and clarify the information provided by the key participants.
The data analysis was carried out as stated by Leininger:
- Collection of information, observation, interviews, field notes and recordings.
- Identification and categorization of descriptors.
- Context and pattern analysis. Information saturation.
- General subjects product of the investigation and contrast with the literature.