Essay on Yamuna River
Rivers in India are not only water sources, but they are worshiped as gods and goddesses and are considered sacred. Despite such a state of honor, rivers are being polluted due to open sewage drains, lack of adequate sewage treatment plants, soil erosion and dumping of plastic waste into river water, etc. An example where Yamuna Every cleaning effort has failed.
The Yamuna river once had blue water, but now it is one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially its part around New Delhi. The capital drains 58% of its waste into the river. Pollutants are increasing in river waters at an alarming rate. The days are not far when Delhi’s houses will have polluted water more than before. Currently 70% of the people of Delhi are drinking the treated water of Yamuna river.
Delhi is producing 1,900 million liters per day (MLD) of sewage, but the Delhi Jal Board (DJB) which is responsible for managing sewage is collecting and treating only 54 per cent of the total sewage generated in the city. In addition, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India has found that 15 out of 32 sewage treatment plants are operating below their capacities.
It is polluting the Yamuna River at a faster rate than ever before. Apart from increasing urban population, pollution in the river is also increasing. At the same time, underground water in Delhi and cities along the banks of Yamuna is getting polluted due to water pollution. The Yamuna river is also considered a “sewage drain” by one of the authorities.
Why is Yamuna the most polluted river?
Yamuna has five sections – Himalayan section (172 km from origin to Tajewala barrage), Upper section (Tajewala barrage to Wazirabad barrage 224 km), Delhi segment (Wazirabad barrage to Okhla barrage 22 km), Utrified segment (Okhla barrage) 490 Km), and thin section (Chambal Confluence to Ganga Confluence 468 km).
Yamuna is the most polluted in its Delhi section. The river Yamuna enters Delhi from Palla village. 22 streams fall into the Yamuna. Of these, 18 drains fall directly into the river and 4 through the Agra and Gurgaon canals.
There is an increase in polluted Yamuna due to lack of adequate number of sewage treatment plants. Earlier, the most polluted part of the Yamuna was located between Wazirabad in Delhi to Etawah in Uttar Pradesh. Recently the polluted portion has increased and shifted its starting point to Panipat, Haryana. Therefore, 100 km of polluted portion has been added.
In the last two decades more than Rs 6,500 crore has been spent for cleaning the Yamuna. But the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in its latest report said that the polluted portion of Yamuna has increased from 500 km to 600 km. To support aquatic life, water must contain 4.0 mg / liter dissolved oxygen. Its limit is 0.0 mg / liter and 3.7 mg in Yamuna from Wazirabad barrage to Agra in Delhi.
Water pollution is measured by measuring its biochemical oxygen demand levels and the permissible limit is 3 mg / liter or less. While the most polluted part of the Yamuna has 14 – 28 mg / L BOD concentrations. The BOD is increasing because there are many untreated sewage drains that drain drains into the river.
Poisonous ammonia levels are high in the water level of the Yamuna between Nizamuddin Bridge and Agra. Stretches between Panipat and Agra have high levels of coliform bacteria. Three barrages ie Wazirabad barrage, ITO barrage and Okhla barrage control the flow of Yamuna river in Delhi.
Some steps for cleaning Yamuna river:
Establishment of Sewage Treatment Plants (STP), Establishment of Effluent Treatment Plants (ETP), Establishment of Common Effluent Treatment Plants, Yamuna Action Plan, Environmental Awareness Campaign are some of the initiatives taken by the Government of Delhi to clean the Yamuna. In addition, water is regularly tested for its quality.
Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) – Yamuna is the action plan for cleaning the Yamuna. Since 1993, the Japan International Cooperation Agency, Government of Japan has been assisting the Government of India to clean the Yamuna in phases. 39 sewage treatment plants in 29 cities of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Delhi were built in Phase I of the scheme. About Rs 1,500 crore has been spent under Yamuna Action Plans I and II.
But not every goal of cleaning the Yamuna has worked yet and the river is still polluted. Most of the sewage treatment facilities are either weak or not functioning properly. In addition, the river gets fresh water only during the rainy season and the water remains almost constant for about nine months.
This makes the condition worse. Crores of rupees have been spent without any result. Corrupt administration and attitude of the people is enough to hide the cleanliness programs. We as a person have to take responsibility for not throwing anything into the river.