The Dyslexia is a disorder of genetic neurodevelopmental. It is about the difficulty for the person to decode a text or to read and interpret it correctly. This problem is part of a set of other specific learning disorders (DSAs) including dysorthography, dysgraphia and dyscalculia , in some cases present at the same time.
From the latest statistics it seems that Italy 3-4% of the population suffers from learning disabilities. It is important to underline, however, that dyslexia , however tiring it may make life, does not affect the person’s intelligence or other abilities at all. An example for all is the story of Anthony Hamilton that we told you here .
Dyslexic children and teens find it harder than others to read and write , use more energy in studying, get tired earlier, commit more misspellings and tend to get distracted easily. In some cases it is good to support them also on a psychological level since children, especially in the school context, feel more fragile and in difficulty than others.
HOW TO RECOGNIZE DYSLEXIA
Generally teachers are to report to parents any problems of children in the learning phase. One realizes for example a reading with too many errors or excessively slow and an uncertain writing with excessive spelling problems. Another sign to be monitored by teachers for a period is the difficulty in concentrating, especially in activities that require memory, calculation or use of foreign languages.
Doubts must be confirmed by a specialist evaluation able to understand if and which learning disorder is present. Specific tests are performed to understand if it is really dyslexia. You can ask for help from your local ASL or to freelancers specialized in the treatment of learning disorders. The diagnosis of dyslexia can be made starting from the end of the second grade , it may seem late but in fact children have different times in learning to write and read and only around 8 years it is possible to distinguish a slower child from a dyslexic one.
It can be identified as early as 4-5 years:
Language communication difficulties:
– poor knowledge of words and meanings;
– difficulty with rhymes and rhyming phrases;
– poor ability to construct the sentence;
– memory problems in learning words.
Motor-praxic difficulties :
– poor drawing ability, both in the representation and in the reproduction of geometric figures;
– poor manual skills, both fine and global.
Hearing and visuo-spatial difficulties:
– difficulty in repeating and identifying tones, sounds, syllables and similar words;
– poor organization skills in manipulation games and mazes;
– difficulty cutting out or building.
DSA indicators at the end of the first grade:
Difficulty in reading:
– Slow deciphering of individual letters;
– uncertainty in the use of syllables;
– poor control of the meaning of words.
Difficulty in writing:
– Little autonomy in writing words;
– replacements or eliminations of letters;
– difficulty in the act of writing.
Errors in the count from 0 to 20;
– errors in the transition from pronunciation to writing of the numbers from 0 to 20;
– difficulty in mind calculation by 10.
Some children or young people with a DSA may have difficulties in coordination, fine motor skills, organization of activities and timelines. It may happen that the same child experiences more than one specific learning disorder and DSA are often associated with attention disorders.
WHAT TO DO
After having a diagnosis of dyslexia, the child will need help and support to face the study . There are specialists who can help you do your homework by using tools and techniques to help the little ones. Depending on the situation, the most effective treatments will be recommended, which obviously must be personalized considering all the child’s specifications. In some cases, it is also advisable to follow some treatments proposed by a speech therapist.
For example, there are compensatory tools for people with dyslexia that can help the student’s autonomy as well as glasses for those who suffer from sight. Many tools of this type can be used by working and studying on the PC but they must always be accompanied by targeted teaching and other strategies and study paths designed ad hoc.
The school also has to collaborate. Once the presence of the disturbance has been ascertained, a personalized didactic plan (PDP) must be made for the student according to the indications provided by the specialists. Generally, when you go the right way and on several fronts, the improvements are seen in a short time.