Dysgraphia . It is a difficulty in coordinating the muscles of the hand and arm, in children who are intellectually normal and who do not suffer from severe neurological deficits. This difficulty prevents mastering and directing the pen to write legibly and neatly.
The disgraphic writing is usually partially legible, since the student’s handwriting can be very small or very large, with malformed strokes. The label cannot respect the line of the line or the relative sizes of the letters, since it presents rigidity in the hand and in its posture. There are even times when you write in reverse, from right to left.
On the other hand, dysgraphs cannot write at normal speed. For this reason, the specialists recommend not to pressure the affected children by demanding more haste.
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- 1 Types of dysgraphia
- 2 Diagnosis
- 3 Pedagogical Causes
- 1 Other Causes
- 4 Treatment
- 5 See also
- 6 Source
Types of dysgraphia
These are psychomotor disorders . The motor dysgraphian child understands the relationship between the sounds heard, and that he pronounces perfectly, and the graphic representation of these sounds, but finds difficulties in writing as a result of poor motor skills. It manifests itself in slowness, dissociated graphic movements, undifferentiated graphic signs, incorrect handling of the pencil and inadequate posture when writing.
The difficulty in reproducing letters or words does not respond to an exclusively motor disorder, but to the poor perception of forms, to spatial and temporal disorientation, to rhythm disorders, etc., it compromises all fine motor skills.
Children with this dysgraphia may have:
- Rigidity of writing: with tension in the control of it.
- Loose graphics: with irregular writing but with few motor errors.
- Impulsiveness: Poorly controlled writing, fuzzy letters, poor page organization.
- Disability: awkward writing, copying words poses great difficulties.
- Slowness and meticulousness: Very regular, but slow writing, strives for precision and control.
To establish the diagnosis of dysgraphia, it is necessary to take into account the age factor, since this disorder does not begin to manifest itself until after the learning period has started (after 6-7 years). The diagnosis is not adequate if it is made before the indicated age.
The diagnosis within the classroom consists of specifying the degree of alterations and specifying the type and frequency of the graphic error, for this procedure it will be necessary to correct the child’s productions daily, highlighting the failures to re-educate with adequate exercise.
On an individual basis, tests such as:
- Dictations: letters, syllables or words. A piece of difficulty is dictated according to the child’s school level. The simplest is to extract it from the book that the child usually uses, corresponding to the grade he is studying. Perform error analysis.
- Spontaneous writing test: intended for children who already write. The slogan is: “write what you like” or “whatever you want” . From the text the errors committed will be pointed out, following the classification of frequent errors indicated in the etiology of this pathology.
- Copy: of a piece in block letters and another in italics, reproduce the text as it is, and then two other texts, one in press to pass into italics, and another in italics to pass to the press.
Here it is observed if the child is able to copy without making mistakes and omissions; or if it can transform the letter (which implies a process of analysis and synthesis) If the child fails to copy sentences, she is asked to copy words, syllables or letters.
The school is the trigger for dysgraphia, since certain educational errors generate it.
- Causes that can cause disorders in writing from the point of view of pedagogical failures:
– Rigid and inflexible instruction, without attending to individual characteristics.
– Neglect of the diagnosis of graphics, as a method of identifying difficulties.
– Poor orientation of the process of acquiring motor skills.
– Inappropriate orientation when changing from script font to italic font.
– Too ambitious targets.
– Unsuitable teaching materials.
– Inability to teach left-handers the correct position of the paper and the most suitable movements.
There are some syndromes that cannot be explained independently, but as the sum of factors in a continuous way, such is the case of graphospasm, whose most important characteristic symptoms are:
– Twitching throughout the writing arm, at the level of the fingers and shoulder. – Painful phenomena. – Forced arrests during writing. – Poor coordination of movements, with jerks and jerks. – Sweating at the level of the palms. – Variation in the way of holding the pencil. – I reject writing.
The treatment of dysgraphia covers a wide range of activities that may be created by the teacher by having the record of errors that the child makes. It is recommended to carry a booklet or folder apart from the one in the classroom work, to facilitate the inclusion of new exercises and careful correction.
The treatment aims to restore global and manual coordination and the acquisition of body schema; rehabilitate perception and graphic attention; stimulate the visomotor coordination, improving the oculomotor process; educate and correct the execution of the basic movements involved in writing (rectilinear, wavy), as well as take into account concepts such as: pressure, braking, fluidity, etc., improve the execution of each of the gestalten that intervene in the writing , that is to say, of each one of the letters; improve writing fluency; correct the posture of the body, fingers, hand and arm, and take care of the position of the paper .
The treatment of dysgraphia covers the different areas:
- Global psychomotricity Fine psychomotricity: Psychomotor exercise involves teaching the child the correct positions:
- Sit well, resting your back on the back of the chair.
- Do not bring your head too close to the blade.
- Bring the chair closer to the table.
- Place the back of the chair parallel to the table.
- Do not move the paper continuously, because the lines will be crooked.
- Do not put your fingers very far from the tip of the pencil, if it does not dance and the child does not control writing.
- If the fingers are brought too close to the tip of the pencil, what is written is not visible and the fingers become fatigued.
- Place your fingers on the pencil at a distance of approximately 2 to 3 cm from the sheet.
- If your child writes with his right hand, he can slightly tilt the paper to the left.
- If the child writes with his left hand, he can tilt the paper slightly to the right.
- Perception: Perceptual difficulties (spatial, temporal, visoperceptive, attentional, etc.) are the cause of many writing errors (fluency, inclination, orientation, etc.). Temporal rhythmic orientation, attention, figure-ground confusion, reproduction must be worked on. of visual models.
- Visomotrocity: Visomotor coordination is essential to achieve satisfactory writing. The objective of the visomotor rehabilitation is to improve the oculomotor processes that will facilitate the act of writing. For visomotor recovery the following activities can be performed: punching with a punch, trimming with scissors, finger tearing, threading, modeling with modeling clay and filling or coloring of models.
- Graphomotricity: The purpose of graphomotor reeducation is to educate and correct the execution of the basic movements involved in writing. Reeducation exercises consist of stimulating the basic movements of letters (rectilinear, wavy), as well as taking into account concepts such as : pressure, braking, fluidity, etc.
The exercises can be: rectilinear movements, loop and wave movements, curvilinear movements of the circular type, frets on ruled paper, completing symmetry on ruled paper and reviewing dotted drawings
- Graphoscript: This point of reeducation aims to improve the execution of each of the gestalten involved in writing, that is, the letters of the alphabet. Exercise consists of calligraphy .
- Writer improvement: Exercise consists of improving writing fluency, correcting mistakes. The activities that can be carried out are: joining letters and words, inclination of letters and lines, working with grids, then performing any psychomotor rehabilitation exercise. You must have 10 minutes for relaxation.
- Relaxation: Touching your fingertips with your thumb. First it is done slowly and then at a higher speed. It can also be done with the eyes closed
Join the fingers of both hands, thumb to thumb, index to index. First slowly and then faster. It can also be done with the eyes closed. Clench your fists tightly, keep them tight, counting to ten and then open them.