Dolmen . Megalithic construction generally consists of several slabs (orthostats) driven into the ground in an upright position and a roof slab resting on them in a horizontal position.
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- 1 History
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Construction
- 1 General typologies
- 4 Places with existence of Dolmens
- 1 Dolmens in Korea
- 2 Best-known dolmens in Spain
- 5 Gallery
- 6 Sources
It was during the Neolithic period that the Megalithic Culture developed, which consisted of the use of large stones that weighed several tons. The rock took sacred characters and man used it as a necessary element to record his knowledge of astronomy, geometry, physics, mathematics, energy, metaphysics and religion .
Technically the stones were used directly, generally as they were in nature, with very few modifications or finishes, as long as the size and shape were convenient.
The megalithic constructions are found from Sweden, Denmark and Northern Germany, jumping to the British Isles and then to France and the entire Iberian Peninsula. Also, from Ireland, they extend to Korea throughout the Eurasian Continent, the Middle East and North Africa, up to Dakar. In Senegambia Africa alone , for example, we can find more than 800 stone circles, almost as many as in the British Isles. Even in the American Continent these types of structures have been found; such is the case of the triple Crónlech de Queneto, in the extreme north of Peru and El Mollar in Argentina. The megalithic construction can be considered as a primitive architecture. It shows the continuation of the cult of the dead, a cult that acquires a marked monumental character with these constructions. In general they are collective burials, that is, tombs, which are characterized by being made from large blocks of stone .
Chamber formed by vertical stones covered by horizontal slabs as a table. In Breton it means ‘large stone table’. From Gaelic: Tol = table, men = stone.
Dolmens generally orient the line of their axis in the Southeast direction . The Hartmann lines have been found to stray in all four directions, surrounding the dolmenic structure as an energy protection barrier, and creating a central zone under it, which is neutral and where calm prevails. This neutral zone, called “dolmenic stay”, is assigned a YIN (or negative) polarity. Some suppose that the Dolmens wanted to compensate for the lack of natural caves.
- Simple dolmen models consist of two or more vertical stones and on top one horizontal, an exercise in unparalleled monumental construction skill. It is generally accompanied by other stones in the large surroundings.
- When a corridor that connects it to the exterior is added to the dolmen, it is called a corridor tomb in the manner of an avenue to parade the funeral procession, whose chamber may be built with orthostats (large slabs) by means of a false dome made of slabs. stone or have been excavated in the rock.
- A third type of megalithic tomb is that of a later gallery, in which the corridor does not differ from the chamber, and which sometimes has pillars, a later prototype of the columns in the temples, in order to support the heavy covers.
Places with existence of Dolmens
Dolmens in Korea
Most of the dolmens are found on the Korean Peninsula. With an estimated 35,000 dolmens, Korea alone represents almost 40% of the world total.
Its largest distribution is in the west coast area of South Korea, an area that would become the headquarters of the Mahan confederation, one of three “Han” proto-states united under the former kingdom of Baekje. There are three specific UNESCO World Heritage sites in Gochang, Hwasun ye that alone justify more than 1,000 dolmens. Those of Hwasun apparently were made in 3,000 a. C.
Best known dolmens in Spain
- Dolmen de Dombate —- In the Iberian Peninsula
- Dolmen de Aguilzas —– In the Basque Country
- Dolmen de Laguardia —– In La Rioja
- Dolmen de Sakulo —— In Navarra
- Pedra Gentil or Extremadura with the Tapias Dolmen —– Catalonia
- Tabernas and Barranquete ——- In Almería
- Castillejo, Cerro de la Virgen and Fonelas ——- In Sanlúcar de Barrameda