Monocots are a class of plants that have only one cotyledon in their seed. Dicots are a class of plants that are characterized by the presence of two lateral cotyledons in each seed.
The two classes also have differences in their flowers, stem, leaves and other characteristics.
|Definition||Monocots are a class of plants that are characterized by the presence of a terminal cotyledon in each seed. They are mainly herbaceous.||Dicots are a class of plants that have two lateral cotyledons in each seed.|
|Embryo||Monocots have a terminal cotyledon.||Dicots have two lateral cotyledons.|
|Leaf veins||The leaf veins are parallel.||The leaf veins are reticulated (branched).|
|Type of leaves||Isobilateral||Dorsiventral.|
|Roots||Fascinated root.||Pivoting or axial root.|
|Flowers||Petals in multiples of three.||Petals in multiples of four or five.|
|Buliform cells||Many monocots have buliform cells on their leaves to regulate water loss.||The leaves of dicots do not have buliform cells.|
|Stem and vascular system||Vascular bundles are spread across the stem without any particular arrangement.||Bundles of vascular tissue arranged in a circle.|
|Pollen||Pollen with a single groove or pore.||Pollen with three furrows or pores.|
|Examples||Grains (wheat, corn, rice), lilies, daffodils, sugar cane, bananas, ginger, grass, onions, bamboo, palm trees, banana trees.||Vegetables (peas, beans, lentils, potatoes) daisies, mint, lettuce, tomatoes, eucalyptus, strawberries, apples.|
Number of cotyledons in the embryo
The number of cotyledons differs in the two types of plants, being the basis for the main classification of monocots and dicots. While monocots have only one cotyledon, dicots have two.
Cotyledons are the first leaves that appear in the embryo of plants. They contain nutrition for the embryo until it is able to grow leaves and produce its food through the process of photosynthesis.
The vascular system is dispersed in monocotyledons, without any particular arrangement. The internal structure of the stem of the dicots is composed of vascular bundles, which are distributed around a central cylinder.
The number of parts of the flowers is different in the two groups. While in monocots they appear in multiples of three, the flowers of dicots are formed in multiples of four or five.
Differences in leaves
The leaves of the dicots are dorsiventral, that is, they have two surfaces (top and bottom surface of the leaf) that differ from each other in appearance and structure. In addition, the leaf veins occur in a reticulated arrangement along the leaf.
The leaves of the monocots are isobilateral, that is, both surfaces have the same appearance and are structurally the same. In most species, the leaves of the monocots have a parallel rib arrangement.
The roots can develop from a main root or arise in branches from the stem.
The root system of monocots is fasciculate, a fibrous root system with several moderately branched roots growing out of the stem.
On the other hand, dicots have a main root system, with other roots that sprout laterally from it. They are called axial or pivoting roots.
Examples of monocots and dicots.
There are about 65,000 species of monocots. Some examples include grains, such as wheat, corn and rice. Other examples are lilies, daffodils, sugar cane, bananas, ginger, grass, onions, bamboo, palm trees, banana trees.
Examples of dicots include daisies, mint, lettuce, tomatoes, eucalyptus, strawberries, apples, as well as vegetables such as peas, beans, lentils and potatoes. There are about 250,000 species in this class.