There are many living creatures that live on this earth. One of them is the flora group. You certainly have heard the name of flora, right? The name flora is certainly familiar to our ears. Moreover, flora also has a large role for human life on this earth.
Well, this time we will review the notion of flora, flora types and flora distribution in this world. Flora which also has an important role in protecting the earth’s ecosystem is indeed very interesting to discuss.
Chapter List ☰
Definition of Flora
The understanding of flora can be understood in terms of etymology, which comes from Latin, which means ‘plant nature’. Nature in this case includes all aspects of the world of plants or plants. The definition of flora is the world of plants found in this world. These plants can include various types of large plants such as trees or grass, and also microflora such as fungi.
Flora Types and Distribution in the World
The types of flora and the distribution of flora in the world are very diverse and broad. At least, according to a report made by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in the United Kingdom, around 391,000 species of plant species have been found based on observations made by scientists. Among these plant species, around 369,000 species or about 94 percent are flowering plants.
To find out the distribution of flora that exists in this world, we can find out based on the existing ecosystem. This ecosystem consists of the main terrestrial ecosystems that exist on the surface horizontally (from the equator to the poles), and are based on climatic conditions.
Based on these distinctions, ecosystems can generally be divided into four types, including: tropical ecosystems, temperate regional ecosystems, taiga ecosystems, and tundra ecosystems. The following statement:
A # Tropical Ecosystem
Tropical ecosystem is a type of ecosystem that is in the vicinity of the tropics, which is still divided into three types. These three types of tropical ecosystems include tropical rain forests, seasonal forests and tropical savanna.
A.1. Tropical rain forest
Tropical rain forests are a type of forest found in regions with tropical climates. The characteristics of tropical rain forests include: rain throughout the year, always high temperatures and humidity, and vegetation in the form of tall trees accompanied by shrubs and vines.
This type of forest also has high organic litter production. The distribution of tropical rain forests is in several regions in the world, such as in Indonesia , East Africa, West Africa, Malaysia , the Philippines, Brazil, Colombia, India , Sri Lanka, the Caribbean, and Madagascar.
A.2. Forest Season
Seasonal forest is a type of forest that can be found next to the equator. Season forest characteristics, including: there is a difference between the rainy season and the dry season which is very clear, the vegetation in it will shed its leaves when the dry season. Seasonal forest distribution is found in Indonesia, North Australia, Myanmar, Laos , Cambodia, Vietnam, India, and on the edges of tropical rain forests in Central and South America.
A.3. Tropika sheet
Type of tropical savanna forest is a type of forest that can be recognized from the existence of grassland communities and small tree growing and also the presence of shrubs that grow unevenly or spread. Distribution of tropical savanna forests, among others, can be found in Central and South America, in most areas in Africa, such as Sudan and Central Madagascar, and also in some islands in Indonesia, and in the Indian Mountain Region.
Related article: Types of Forest Types by Function, Tree Types, and How they Occur
B # Medium Regional Ecosystem
The temperate ecosystems are a few types of ecosystems, which are: thorny shrubs, deserts, meadows, temperate rainforests, and fall foliage.
B.1. Check the Thorns
This thorny bush ecosystem can be identified by the presence of thorny vegetation similar to Xerophyt. This vegetation has a characteristic that is small leaves that is to reduce transpiration.
B.2. Desert ( Desert )
Desert ecosystems are ecosystems that exist in areas with less rainfall than evaporation. In general, this ecosystem is located at an altitude of 200 – 300 m, both in the northern and southern latitudes.
Grassland vegetation is characterized by the dominance of grasses. This vegetation is found in the North American region, which is in the form of grasslands, commonly called prairi. Whereas in Asia, this steppe is commonly called steppe, in South America known as pampas, and in South Africa it’s called veldt.
B.4 Medium-sized Rain Forests
The rainforests of this medium area can be identified from the region which looks always green, with trees that are not so tall, the leaves of the trees are harder and stiffer, and not so lush. Vegetation that grows there includes agathis and conifers. The distribution of rainforests in these areas is, among others,: the southern part of the United States , South Japan and parts of Korea, mainland China , the southern part of Africa, New Zealand and Australia.
B.5. Deciduous Forest
This deciduous forest can be found in areas with continental climates that have enough rain. Most of the vegetation in this region sheds its leaves in late summer.
C # Ekosistem Taiga
These taiga ecosystems can be identified by the dominance of forests with the type of coniferous pine tree that can survive in extreme cold temperatures. The distribution of this taiga ecosystem exists in Europe-Asia and North America.
D # Tundra Ecosystem
Tundra ecosystem is an ecosystem that has no trees in it and is in the cold and dry Arctic region. The main vegetation that can be found in this region is moss that grows in summer.
Those are some forms of ecosystems that exist. The distribution of flora can also be affected by altitude. Each type of plant has a different ability to grow. Certain types of plants can only survive well when in an area with the right temperature according to their needs.
The climate classification can be seen based on the height of the place and the types of plants that are able to grow well in that climate type. This classification has been made by Junghuhn, and we can see in the picture above. Hopefully this article is useful.