Sardjono, (2009) stated that negotiations originated in English, negotiation . It means negotiations. Negotiations can also be interpreted as deliberation to reach consensus. Negotiation is an attempt to build cooperation between several parties.
The party is negotiating to bring mutual benefits by persuasive, not repressive or intimidation. Furthermore, negotiation can be interpreted as a step to build an understanding of an issue.
Negotiation according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (in Darmayanti, 2007) is a bargaining process by negotiating to give or receive in order to reach mutual agreement between one party and another party.
Negotiations can take place if there are two or more people who want to exchange ideas to solve the problem being faced together. In general, negotiation is used when there are problems that cannot be solved alone or dealt with together.
There is something desirable in a negotiation that is the exchange of opinions between the two parties in a directed direction. However, this can happen if the participants present at the negotiation activity are aware of their respective duties and are open to the opinions of others.
Yustinah and Iskak (2008) stated that negotiating is a bargaining process by negotiating to give or receive with the aim of reaching a mutual agreement between one party and another party.
Eduka Teachers’ Team (2015) states that negotiation is a way to reach an agreement through a formal discussion. Negotiation is a process where both parties reach an agreement that can satisfy the satisfaction of all interested parties with the elements of cooperation and competition.
Based on the above opinion it can be concluded that negotiation is a method adopted by both parties to resolve a problem by exchanging ideas to reach a deliberation to reach consensus.
Thus an explanation of the meaning of negotiations, will then be explained about the negotiation process.
Eduka Teachers Team (2015) states the negotiation process consists of
- The party who has the program or the first party who conveys the intent with polite, clear, and detailed sentences.
- The talking partner refutes the talking partner in a polite manner and still respects the first party.
- The program owner makes an argument using polite sentences and convinces the partner to speak.
After understanding the negotiation process, it will then be explained about the things that must be considered in the negotiations.
Things – Things to Look Out for in Negotiations
Darmayanti (2007) states that there are several things that must be considered when expressing opinions in negotiations, namely:
- Opinions are conveyed smoothly, clearly, and politely. It aims to avoid mistakes in understanding the opinions expressed.
- The opinions expressed are accompanied by clear reasons, facts or examples. It is intended that what is conveyed is based on reasons that can be accepted rationally and correctly.
- Express opinions with strong intonation and voice so that they can be easily understood by others. Submitting opinions with intonation and a less loud voice, will cause readers difficulty in hearing and understanding what is conveyed.
- Clarity in expressing opinions. Opinions expressed clearly will make others believe and those invited to negotiation can understand what is conveyed.
If we already know about things that must be considered in negotiations. Then, what are the objects that are targeted in negotiations. The following explanation.
Sardjono, (2009) states that there are several objects that are negotiated by both parties, namely products, ideas, and problem solutions.
After understanding about the things that must be considered in negotiations and the object of the target to be negotiated by both parties. Then what are the objectives of the negotiations?
Also read: Exposition Text: Definition, Objectives, Characteristics, Development Pattern, and Preparation Steps
Purpose of Negotiation
Sardjono, (2009) stated the purpose of negotiations to delegate an interest to another party. However, this delegation can be carried out if both parties have a correlation in their natural resources.
In addition, negotiations also aim to gain sympathy from an idea that is being offered. Implicitly the purpose of negotiations is related to marketing. The intended marketing is not only related to consumer goods, but also services and problem solving.
Furthermore, the goal of negotiation is to sell a product or idea, study a client or someone’s offer, offer a solution to a problem, and solve a problem.
Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that the long-term goal of the negotiation process is problem solving. While the short-term goal of the negotiation process is to offer an alternative solution that can be mutually agreed to solve a problem.
After explaining the purpose of the negotiations, then what are the principles for conducting the negotiations?
Principles of Negotiation
Sardjono, (2009) states the principle of negotiations viz
Transparency is honesty. However, that does not mean not allowed to determine tactics. The tactic used is not a lie.
In a negotiation, one can determine a tactic that does not contain elements of lies. This is due to be able to harm other parties involved in negotiations.
Accountability is accountable. That is, someone who negotiates should be consistent with what is said.
Consistent with what was said, the parties to the negotiations were considered to be accountable for their words. As a result, the party invited to negotiate will give confidence to the person.
The intended justice is that the distribution of portions in a cooperation must be fair. In negotiations should not give parties to certain elements, which are considered to have more interest.
Mutual respect and respect aims to foster good relations with partners. The attitude of mutual respect and respect should also be shown, when negotiating.
When someone expresses their opinion, the other party who hears should also respect and respect what is conveyed. How to show this attitude.
One of them is by not interrupting the conversation, when someone expresses an opinion. Because of such actions, considered less respect for others.
Such is the explanation about negotiations. Where negotiation is usually used to resolve a problem that occurs between the two parties to find a solution. In addition to understanding the negotiations above, it also presents other matters relating to the negotiations.