Swamp is wet land or land that is always inundated by water due to lack of drainage or because of its lower location compared to the surrounding area. Swamps occur due to several things, namely:
- due to land expansion due to aquatic sediment,
- due to sea water erosion and platform abrasion,
- due to an increase in sea water in glacial times.
Swamps have several types depending on the process, the location and taste of the water. Where each of each is divided into several swamps. For more details, please read the explanation below.
According to the Process of Occurrence
If seen from the process, then the swamp can be divided into 3, namely beach swamps, peripheral swamps and eternal swamps. The following is an explanation of each of the swamps.
A. Beach Swamp
Coastal swamps are marshes at river mouths. Where the water in this type of swamp always changes because of the effects of tides from sea water. This swamp is formed due to the puddling process in the river mouth.
B. Peripheral Swamp
Peripheral swamps are swamps that are found along streams, where this swamp occurs due to overflowing from the river. When the river overflows or floods the water carries sandy grained minerals and is relatively coarse then deposited in the riverbanks.
Whereas when the flood recedes the coarse grains cannot be transported by water anymore because the river’s rushing is not as hard as when it floods. As a result, natural dykes will form on the right and left sides that are higher and make the remaining flood water will be inundated. Because the process is formed marginal swamp.
Also see: Coral Reef: Functions, Benefits and Impact of Damage
C. Rawa Abadi
An eternal swamp is a swamp whose water is trapped in a basin and has no release to the sea. Rain water enters the swamp and is stored in it can only evaporate because there is no other flow.
The swamp has acidic and reddish taste. Generally, this swamp can be found in sloping coastal areas and at large river mouths. In Indonesia alone, swamps are found on the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Southeast Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua.
According to the location
When viewed from the location of the occurrence, the swamps are divided into 5, namely coastal swamps, brackish swamps, river swamps, basin swamps and lake swamps. The following is an explanation of each swamp by location.
A. Beach Swamp
Coastal swamp is a swamp that is located in a coastal area. The swamp is always affected by tides from sea water. Coastal swamps are created because of the low parts on the seafront which are always inundated by sea water. Mangroves are plants that can grow in this swamp. For example: coastal swamps in the bay of Bone South Sulawesi.
B. Brackish Swamp
Brackish swamps are swamps found in river mouths. The swamp is affected by tides from sea water. Brackish swamps occur because there is a low part around the river mouth.
In this type of swamp there is a lot of grass and trees overgrown, where the plants are waterproof such as ironwood, mangroves, and others. By residents and the government of South Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, swamps like this are mostly used as tidal rice fields.
C. River Swamp
River swamps are swamps that occur because on the left or right side of the river there are low areas, which river water always floods. This type of swamp is commonly found in the interior of rivers in Kalimantan and the eastern part of the island of Sumatra.
For example: marshes in the Musi river between Palembang City and Sebayu City (South Sumatra), and marshes in the Mahakam River between Muara Kaman to Muara Amuntai and Kahala in East Kalimantan.
D. Basin Swamp
Basin swamps are swamps in certain basin areas and are always filled with water. The basin is created due to the decrease or removal by endogenous forces around the basin. For example, the Pening Swamp in Central Java.
E. Swamp Lake
Lake swamps are swamps that occur due to tides from lake water. During the rainy season, the lake inundates the surrounding area and during the dry season the lake water recedes. The area around the lake is formed by the lake swamps. For example, swamps that are around Lake Tempe.
According to the taste of water
When viewed from the taste of the water, the swamps are divided into 3, namely saltwater swamps, brackish water swamps, and freshwater swamps. The following is an explanation of each swamp according to the taste of the water.
A. Saltwater Swamp
Saltwater swamps are swamps that contain salt water or sea water in the water. Swamps are commonly found in coastal areas in Indonesia, including swamps on the west coast as well as the east coast of Aceh, which is around the coast of the Gulf of Bone in South Sulawesi, and many others.
B. Brackish Water Swamp
Brackish water swamps are swamps that are formed due to a mixture of two types of water, namely salt water (sea water) and fresh water. The swamp has brackish water taste. Brackish water swamps are found in estuaries of rivers in Kalimantan and river estuaries on the east coast of the island of Sumatra.
C. Freshwater Swamp
Freshwater swamps are swamps whose waters are affected by rainwater, river water, and ground water. The swamp has a fresh taste in the water. Freshwater swamps are found in the interior of rivers in Kalimantan as well as inland rivers on the east coast of the island of Sumatra and marshes in the basin and lake swamps.
Benefits of Swamps
Swamp has many benefits in various purposes, these benefits are as follows:
- Utilized as tidal rice fields. For example on the east coast of Sumatra and Kalimantan.
- Utilized to take the wood. For example, inland areas in Kalimantan and the east coast of Sumatra, many produce mangrove, meranti, ironwood and others.
- Utilized for nipah and sago palm. Nipah and sago palm are the leaves used for roofs.
- Utilized as a settlement. In the Kalimantan region as well as in the east coast of Sumatra the swamp area was made into a local settlement.
- Utilized to take the results of the fish. Brackish water swamp areas can be used to raise shrimp, mangrove crabs and so on.
- Utilized as a livestock area, for example swamp buffalo cattle and alabio ducks in the South Kalimantan area.
Such is the explanation on portal-ilmu.com regarding the definition, types and benefits of swamps. Hope it helps you to be able to learn and understand swamp material. Have a good study.