Who has never felt the wind? The wind has become one of the natural phenomena that is very close to our lives. Both inside and outside the home, we will often encounter the wind. Wind can also be a beneficial thing, but it is also not impossible if the wind becomes a thing that harms us.
Even though you are familiar with the wind, do you know what wind is, and what types of wind are there? Yes, the wind has a variety of types that are known. For that, we also need to study the types of wind that exist in order to better understand natural phenomena on this one.
Definition of Wind
Wind is a phenomenon that can be interpreted as a mass of air that moves from one place to another. This wind moves because of the blowing that occurs due to differences in air pressure in an area. The wind moves from the area with maximum air pressure to the area with minimum air pressure.
Wind also has certain characteristics that are important to know, namely the strength of the wind, wind direction and wind speed. Wind speed can be measured using an instrument called anemometer. If the wind blows faster, then the measuring bowl in this anemometer will spin faster.
Types of Wind Types
This moving wind or air basically has various types. In everyday life, we know several different types of wind. The naming of these types of wind generally depends on the direction from which the wind is blowing.
So, like the wind blowing from the direction of the mountain, it is called mountain wind. If the wind comes from the west, it is called the west wind. Some types of wind are named after their nature. Well, then, what are the types of wind we need to know? Next is the explanation.
1 # Passat Wind ( Trade Wind )
Passat Wind is a type of wind that blows with a fixed nature throughout the year, coming from the subtropics to the equator. Passat Wind uses the general nature of the wind which originates from the subtropical maximum pressure area towards the minimum equatorial region.
The Passat wind blows in accordance with Buys Ballot’s law, which reads that due to the influence of the Corriolis force (rotation of the earth), the wind in the northern hemisphere turns to the right, while the wind in the southern hemisphere will move towards the left.
Passat winds that come from the northeast direction, or in areas with tropical climates in the northern hemisphere, are called the East Passat winds. While the Passat Wind that comes from the southeast, is called the Southeast Passat Wind.
These two passat winds meet around the equator. The second meeting of this passat wind causes the temperature in the tropics is always high. As a result, the existing air mass is forced to rise vertically (convection).
The meeting area of these two types of Wind Passat is also called the equatorial shade ( doldrums ) or no wind region. In addition, it is also referred to as the Inter-Tropical Convergence Region (DKAT), which is a zone with the highest air temperature.
Because of this high temperature, the area is also called a thermal equator. This high temperature, resulting in low air pressure.
2 # Anti-Passat Wind
In contrast to the Passat wind, the air above the equatorial region that flows into the polar regions and then down in the maximum subtropical region is the Anti-Passat Wind. Wind Passat there are also two types.
If this anti-passat wind is in the northern hemisphere, it is called Southwest Anti-Passat Wind. While in the southern hemisphere is called the Northwest Anti-Passat Wind.
In areas around latitudes 20 ° -30 ° N and LS, Anti-Passat Winds will drop vertically again as dry winds. This dry wind will absorb water vapor in the air and land surface. As a result, formed a desert on the face of the earth that is dry.
Examples of deserts caused by dry winds are, for example, deserts in Saudi Arabia , the Sahara Desert in Africa, and deserts in Australia.
3 # West Winds ( Westerlies )
West wind is a wind that always blows from the west direction of the earth throughout the year, namely in the latitude 35 ° N – 60 ° N and 35 ° S – 60 ° S. West winds are more stable and regular in nature, which are in the region of 40 ° S – 60 ° S. In the area, the location is wider so that the air becomes relatively evenly distributed.
The influence of the West Winds in the northern hemisphere is not so perceptible due to barriers from continents. While the influence of the west wind in the Southern Hemisphere is very large, especially in the 60 ° S region. Because, in this area the West Wind blows very hard. These winds by the sailors are often called roaring forties .
4 # Polar Easter Winds ( Polar Easterlies )
The North Pole and South Pole of the earth have areas with maximum air pressure. From this area, the wind then flows to the subpolar minimum area (60 ° N / LS). This wind is called the east wind, because it comes from the East Pole. East Wind has a cold nature because of its origin from the polar regions.
5 # Monsoon Wind (Monsoon)
The monsoon is a type of wind that changes directions in opposite directions every half year. Generally, in the first half of the year dry land winds will blow and the following half year, wet sea winds will be blown.
Typically, from April to October, the Asian region experiences minimum air pressure while in South Africa and Australia experiences maximum air pressure. It was at this time that the monsoon flows from the direction of southern Africa and Australia to the Asian region.
For the Indonesian region, the wind is a southeast or east monsoon. This wind does not bring rain because it does not cross the vast ocean when it blows. However, in the southern region of Seram Island and the East Coast of South Sulawesi, it will rain at that time.
However, the distribution of rain from this wind is uneven in each region. Increasingly east, rainfall tends to decrease because of the less water vapor content. Because the monsoon winds come from the west, this monsoon is named the west monsoon wind.
For October to April, the sun is in the southern hemisphere. At present, South Africa and Australia will experience minimum air pressure, and in Asia experience maximum air pressure.
Therefore, the wind will blow from Asia to South Africa and Australia. This wind carries a lot of water vapor as it passes through the Pacific Ocean region. As a result, when this wind blows and passes through Indonesia, Indonesian territory will rain a lot. This wind was given the name of the East Muson wind.
Between the two seasons, there is a season called transition season. The characteristics of this transition season are the air that feels hot, irregular wind direction, and rain often occurs suddenly in a short time, accompanied by heavy rain falling.
Also consider: Understanding and 10 Kinds of Erosion
6 # Local Wind
In addition to monsoons, Indonesia also experiences local (local) winds. This local wind includes:
6.a # Land Wind and Sea Wind
Land wind and sea breeze are types of wind that are often felt in daily life, especially for residents who live in coastal areas. The land wind blows from the land towards the sea, while the sea breeze comes from the sea towards the land area.
When viewed from the nature of the object, land is a solid object, while the ocean is a liquid object. This land, which is a solid object, has properties that easily absorb heat from sunlight and release heat more quickly.
Therefore, at night, the land cools faster than the ocean. Because the temperature on land at night is lower, the air pressure on land becomes high (maximum), while the air pressure in the ocean is lower.
In accordance with Buys Ballot’s law, air experiences movement from areas with maximum air pressure to the minimum area. So, at night the wind blows from the land to the sea. This wind is called the land wind.
Whereas in the afternoon, the land receives heat more quickly and the ocean is relatively slower. As a result, land is the center of low pressure (minimum) while the ocean is the center of high pressure (maximum). In this condition, during the day winds blow from the sea to the mainland, which is called the sea breeze.
For fishermen, this land wind has its own benefits. Land winds are used by traditional fishermen to go to sea at night. For fishermen, the sea breeze is used to return to the mainland.
6.b # Mountain Winds and Valley Winds
Mountain wind is a type of wind that moves from the direction of the mountain to the valley. Conversely, valley winds are winds that blow from the valley towards the mountains.
The process of the occurrence of mountain winds and valley winds is not much different from the process of land and sea winds. In the morning until around 2:00 pm, mountains or mountains receive more heat from the sun than valleys.
As a result, during the day the air temperature in the mountains or mountains will be higher than in the valley. This is what causes air pressure in mountainous or mountainous regions to be relatively lower (minimum), whereas air pressure in valleys is higher.
Then, the wind blows from the valley towards the mountain. The wind that blows from the valley is called the valley wind. Valley breeze, blowing in the morning until late afternoon.
While in the afternoon and evening, the opposite condition occurs, namely relatively high temperatures in the valley than in the mountains or mountains. This condition causes the air pressure in the valley to be lower (minimum). At this time, the wind that blows from the mountain to the valley, or the so-called mountain wind.
The atmosphere of these two winds can be felt strongly if you are in the foot of a mountain or in a mountainous region.
6.c # Falling Winds or Fohn Winds
Falling winds are also called fohn winds. Fohn is a falling or falling wind that is both dry and hot. This kind of wind was originally known to occur on the slopes of the northern Alpina mountains. This kind of wind that occurs in the area is called the fohn wind which is a dry wind that moves down the mountain slope.
If seen from the process of the occurrence of wind, this falling wind can be said to be almost the same as the mountain wind. It’s just that there is a difference between falling winds and mountain winds that lie in their properties.
Falling winds are generally dry and hot. This happens when a falling wind blows from an area that has a higher temperature than the area visited.
Examples of falling winds that occur in Indonesia, for example Wambraw Wind (Biak), Bahorok Wind (Deli), Beetle Wind (Cirebon), Wind Gending (Pasuruan), and Brubu (Makassar).
This type of falling wind can also be dry and cold if the wind moves from a high mountain peak. Examples such as the Mistraldi Wind on the south coast of France, Boradi Wind on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, and the Sciroccodi Wind which occurred on the coast of the Adriatic Sea