Definition and 3 Characteristics of Soil

Who does not know or never see the land? Of course, everyone, including you have seen or held the ground, right? Land becomes one of the things that is very attached to human life.

Even though rapid development is increasingly reducing the appearance of land on the surface of the earth, but still land is still an important thing for human life. So, do you know what is the meaning of land and how are the properties of this land ?

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Definition of land

Understanding the land when referring to the opinion of M. Isa Darmawijaya (1990), is an accumulation of the natural body that occupies most of the surface of the planet. In this land, plants can grow. Land also has a variety of special properties as a result of the influence of climate and the living bodies that shape it.

Properties of Soil Properties

On the surface of this earth, there are various types of soil that can be found. Each of these land which is located in different places also has different characteristics from each other. The nature of this soil is divided into several groups, namely the physical nature of the soil, the chemical nature of the soil and the biological nature of the soil.

1. Soil Physical Properties

Physical properties of this soil include several things, in the form of soil texture, structure, soil consistency, color, temperature, moisture, soil permeability, soil porosity and soil drainage.

* Soil texture

Soil texture is the ratio of dust, sand, and clay particles in a mass of soil. This soil texture greatly affects the ability of the soil in terms of water absorption, water availability in the soil, infiltration and also the rate of water movement.

* Soil Structure

Soil structure is the arrangement or binding of soil grains that form soil aggregates in various shapes, sizes and stability. On swamps or deserts, these soil structures are lacking or not formed due to the fact that the grains are single or not bound to one another.

In addition, this soil structure can also change from the original soil structure due to human action. For example, the activities of farmers in plowing, fertilizing and cultivating land can change the structure of the original land.

* Land Consistency

Soil consistency is a physical property of the soil which shows the small size of cohesion and soil adhesion to various moisture. Simply put, soil consistency can be understood as a soil reaction when under stress, such as sliding symptoms, moisture, toughness and even soil adhesion.

The consistency of soil is influenced by soil texture, soil organic matter content, colloidal rate and soil moisture.

Learn also:  Understanding and 6 Types of Wind

* Land Color

The color of the soil is something that can be a clue from some other soil properties. A common cause of this difference in surface color is due to differences in the content of organic matter in the soil. The higher the content of organic matter, the darker the soil will be.

* Soil Temperature

Soil temperature is one of the factors that influence the microbiological activities and germination of plant seeds. In general, the higher the temperature of a soil to reach a certain limit, the more microbiological activities and germination can occur.

* Landslides

Soil is also called soil moisture. This soil content is the water content that fills up some or all of the pores of the soil found on the soil surface. Water that is in the pores of the soil and is the groundwater, is not included in this soil. Basically, no matter how dry the soil is, it always contains soil moisture.

* Land permeability

Soil permeambilitas is the speed of water in seeping into the soil horizontally and vertically through soil pores. Water permeation rate is influenced by soil texture. Soil permeability is also interpreted as the velocity of the soil in absorbing water in saturated conditions.

* Porosity of the Soil

Soil porosity is the ratio of pores in the soil to the soil mass volume. The porosity of this soil is stated in percentage. For soils that are able to easily or quickly absorb water, the soil is called porous because it has porous cavities that are diminan.

This porous land, for example, is sandy soil. Non-porous soils such as clay.

* Land Drainage

Soil drainage is the ability of the soil to drain and treat excess water that is in the soil or on the soil surface. Land that has poor drainage will cause water to stagnate.

To overcome this, waterways need to be made in the land. Things that can affect the occurrence of standing water include soil topography, shallow ground water and rainfall.

2. Properties of Soil Chemistry

Chemical properties of this soil include several things namely organic matter, nutrients and soil pH.

*Organic substance

This soil organic material consists of the remains of plants and animals that are in the soil, green manure, manure, compost, dirt and mucus worms, insects, and other large animals. The content of soil organic matter can be identified by the color of the soil.

Soils that contain relatively high organic matter will have a brown to black soil color effect,

* Elemental Elements

Nutrients are chemical elements needed by plants to grow. The nutrients provided by this soil are used by plants as food or nutrients. Because plants also need nutrients (essential), in addition to the need for oxygen and carbon dioxide.

* Soil pH

Soil pH is a chemical property of the soil indicating the acidity of the soil. This soil pH can be called normal if the value ranges from 6.6 to 7.5. At this soil pH, all important soil nutrients, such as nitrogen, are available.

Meanwhile, if the soil is in very acidic conditions with a pH of less than 4.0, the chemical reaction in the soil can cause elements in the soil such as AI, Mn and Fe to have high concentrations. As a result, this can actually be poisoning.

3. Nature of Soil Biology

The biological properties of these soils are formed by the soil’s solids which are soil particles, organic matter and soil organisms. The biological properties of the soil are influenced by several elements, including:

* Total Soil Microorganisms

This is the total number of microorganisms present in the soil that affect the level of soil fertility. The availability of microorganisms in high quantities indicates the balance of components in the soil. The components in question include such as adequate food, energy and temperature supplies.

* Number of Fungi or Soil Fungus

The amount of fungi or soil fungus is the availability of fungi in the soil which plays a role in helping the decomposition of organic material in acidic soils.

* Amount of Phosphate Solvent Bacteria (P)

The amount of phosphate solubilizing bacteria is a soil bacterium that plays a role in influencing organic change by dissolving the phosphate content in the soil.

* Total Land Respiration

Total soil respiration is a measurement of soil respiration which will determine the level of activity of soil microorganisms. If the level of soil circulation gets higher, the number of soil organisms will also increase.

by Abdullah Sam
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